Studying the Scriptures

2Ti 2:15  Study to shew thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth.

The word study in the KJV is translated from the following Greek word:

G4704 σπουδάζω spoudazō
Thayer Definition:
1) to hasten, make haste
2) to exert one’s self, endeavour, give diligence

The meaning of this word is to make effort towards something. Does this mean that Paul doesn’t really admonish Timothy to study the Scriptures? In order to fully understand the meaning of this verse, we must dig deeper into the etymology of this word “study”.

The Aramaic translations of this verse are as follows:
Murdock
2Ti 2:15 And study to present thyself before God, perfectly, a laborer who is not ashamed, one who correctly announceth the word of truth.
Etheridge
2Ti 2:15 And be careful to establish thyself perfectly before Aloha, a workman without shame, preaching rightly the word of truth.


דתקים ‘datqeem’ means to stand…the meaning of the Aramaic ‘v’vaytbtayl lakh datqeem’ means to cease to stand…ie to sit (study).

Origin of the word “study”
c.1125, from O.Fr. estudier “to study” (Fr. étude), from M.L. studiare, from L. studium “study, application,” originally “eagerness,” from studere “to be diligent” (“to be pressing forward”), from PIE *(s)teu- “to push, stick, knock, beat”

Studium, Studi(I)
N – 2 4 N -

eagerness, enthusiasm, zeal, spirit; devotion, pursuit, study;

Latin
Studeo, Studere, Studui,
V – 2 1 -
desire, be eager for; busy oneself with; strive;

Jude states that we should earnestly contend for the faith once delivered to the saints.  Studying is one way of contending for that faith.

From Websters 1828
STUDY, n. [L., to study, that is, to set the thought or mind. See Assiduous.]

1. Literally, a setting of the mind or thoughts upon a subject; hence, application of mind of books, to arts or science, or to any subject, for the purpose of learning what is not before known.
ASSID’UOUS, a. [L. assiduus, from assideo, to sit close, ad and sedeo; Eng. to sit*.]

1. Constant in application; as a person assiduous in his occupation.

2. Attentive; careful; regular in attendance; as an assiduous physician or nurse.

3. Performed with constant diligence or attention; as assiduous labor.

Sitting to learn/teach

Mat 5:1 But seeing the crowds, He went up into the mountain, and seating Himself, His disciples came near to Him.
Luk 10:39 And to this one was a sister being called Mary, who also was sitting alongside, at the feet of Jesus, and heard His Word.
Mat 13:1 And going out from the house in that day, Jesus sat down by the sea.
Mat 13:2 And great crowds were gathered to Him, so that having entered the boat, He sat down. And all the crowd stood on the shore.
Mat 15:29 And moving from there, Jesus came beside the Sea of Galilee. And going up into the mountain, He sat there.
Mat 15:30 And great crowds came to Him, having with them lame ones, blind, dumb, maimed, and many others. And they flung them down at the feet of Jesus. And He healed them;
Mat 23:2 saying, The scribes and the Pharisees have sat down on Moses’ seat.
Mat 24:3 And as He was sitting on the Mount of Olives, the disciples came to Him privately, saying, Tell us, when will these things be? And, What is the sign of Your coming and of the end of the age?
Mar 3:32 And a crowd sat around Him. And they said to Him, Behold, Your mother and Your brothers seek You outside.
Luk 4:20 And rolling up the scroll, returning it to the attendant, He sat down. And the eyes of all in the synagogue were fixed on Him.
Joh 6:3 And Jesus went up into the mountain and sat there with His disciples.
Act 13:14 But going through from Perga, they came to Antioch-Pisidia, and going into the synagogue on the day of the sabbaths, they sat down.
Act 22:3 Indeed I am a man, a Jew having been born in Tarsus of Cilicia, but having been brought up in this city at the feet of Gamaliel, having been trained according to the exactness of the ancestral law, being a zealous one of God, even as you all are today.

Eze 33:31 And they come to you as people come, and they sit before you as My people. And they hear your words, but they do not do them. For they produce much love with their mouth, but their heart goes after their unjust gain.
the Targum, “and they come unto thee as the men the disciples come:”

Deu 33:3 Yes, He loves the peoples; all His holy ones are in Your hand; and they sit down at Your feet; He lifts up each at Your Words.
2Ki 4:38 And Elisha returned to Gilgal. And the famine was in the land. And the sons of the prophets were sitting before him. And he said to his young man, Set on the big pot and boil soup for the sons of the prophets.

John Gill commentary

Jose ben Joezer (a);

“let thy house be an house of resort for the wise men, and be thou dusting thyself, בעפר רגליהם, “with the dust of their feet”:”

which by one of their commentators (b) is interpreted two ways, either

“as if it was said that thou shouldst walk after them; for he that walks raises the dust with his feet, and he that goes after him is filled with the dust which he raises with his feet; or else that thou shouldst sit at their feet upon the ground, for so it was usual, that the master sat upon a bench, and the scholars sat at his feet upon the floor.” (a) Misn. Pirke Abot, c. 1. sect. 4. (b) Bartenora in Misn. Piske Abot, c. 1. sect. 4.

Deu 33:3 Yes, He loves the peoples; all His holy ones are in Your hand; and they sit down at Your feet; He lifts up each at Your Words.

The Targums interpret it of the feet of the cloud of glory, they pitching their tents where that rested, Num_9:17; some think it an allusion to scholars sitting at the feet of their masters to receive instructions from them, see Act_22:3; so the disciples and followers of Christ sit at his feet, attending on his word and ordinances with calmness and serenity of mind, with much spiritual pleasure and delight, and where they continue and abide; and which may denote their modesty and humility, their subjection to his ordinances, and readiness to receive his doctrines, and their perseverance in them, see Mar_5:15; the word signifies, in the Arabic language, to sit down at a table (e), and so the word is used in the Arabic version of Mat_8:11; and the ancient manner being reclining {this is the idea of ‘Sod’ in PaRDeS} the guests might be said to sit at the feet of each, especially at the feet of the master; so Christ sits at his table, and his people with him at his feet, Son_1:12,

All of the treasures of wisdom come forth from YHWH
Col 2:2 That their hearts might be comforted, being knit together in love, and unto all riches of the full assurance of understanding, to the acknowledgement of the mystery of God, and of the Father, and of Christ;
Col 2:3 In whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge.

Psa 111:2 The works of the LORD are great, sought out of all them that have pleasure therein.

Seeking YHWH by Studying His Word
Isa 55:6 Seek YHWH while He may be found; call on Him while He is near.

D’rash

The Hebrew word for seek in this verse is דרש ‘d’rash’ where the word midrash (study) comes from:

H1875

dârash
To look for or search for something or for answers. דּרשׁ

The word מדרש ‘midrash’ is used 2 times in the Scriptures, both times being translated into the LXX as Biblos (Bible).

2Ch 13:22 And the rest of the acts of Abijah, and his ways, and his sayings, are written in the story (מדרש ‘midrash’) of the prophet Iddo.
2Ch 24:27 As to his sons, and the greatness of the burdens upon him, and the foundation of the house of God, behold, they are written in the inquiry (מדרש ‘midrash’) of the Book of the Kings. And his son Amaziah reigned in his place.

In the Apocryphal book of Sirach there is an interesting connection between studying and worship.

Sir 51:23 Draw near unto me, ye unlearned, and dwell in the house of learning.

‘house of study/learning’… This is translated as οἴκῳ παιδείας ‘oiko paideias’.

Studying the Torah=Kissing the Son?
Psa 2:12 Kiss the Son, lest He be angry, and you perish from the way, when His wrath is kindled but a little. Oh the blessings of all those who flee to Him for refuge!

Psa 2:12 δράξασθε παιδείας, μήποτε ὀργισθῇ κύριος καὶ ἀπολεῖσθε ἐξ ὁδοῦ δικαίας. ὅταν ἐκκαυθῇ ἐν τάχει ὁ θυμὸς αὐτοῦ, μακάριοι πάντες οἱ πεποιθότες ἐπ᾿ αὐτῷ.

English LXX translation
Psa 2:12 Accept (grasp, take by hand) correction (learning, training), lest at any time the Lord be angry, and you should perish from the righteous way. Whenever His wrath shall be suddenly kindled, blessed are all they that trust in Him.

Psa 2:12 נַשְּׁקוּ־בַ֡ר פֶּנ־יֶאֱנַ֤ף׀ וְתֹ֬אבְדוּ דֶ֗רֶךְ כִּֽי־יִבְעַ֣ר כִּמְעַ֣ט אַפֹּ֑ו אַ֝שְׁרֵ֗י כָּל־חֹ֥וסֵי בֹֽו׃

The translators of the Hebrew Scriptures connected learning with kissing (act of worship) the Son.

This is what discipleship is. Walking hand and hand with the Messiah as He teaches us and trains us.

The word for disciple comes from the Hebrew למד ‘lamad’ meaning to be yoked with Messiah.  Being a disciple is being a student who studies at the feet of His Master and walks with Him to learn of His ways.  The word מדרש ‘midrash’ comes from the root דר ‘dor’ which means to make a circle, as in treading out grain.  Studying the Scriptures with the guidance of the Holy Spirit is like walking in cycles of righteousness with our Master.

Bereans
Act 17:10 And the brethren immediately sent away Paul and Silas by night unto Berea: who coming thither went into the synagogue of the Jews.
Act 17:11 These were more noble than those in Thessalonica, in that they received the word with all readiness of mind, and searched the scriptures daily, whether those things were so.
Act 17:12 Therefore many of them believed; also of honourable women which were Greeks, and of men, not a few.

Prove/test/try all things
1Th 5:21 Test all things, hold fast the good.
1Jo 4:1 Beloved, do not believe every spirit, but test the spirits, whether they are from God; for many false prophets have gone forth into the world.

He pardons those who seek Him
2Ch 30:8 Now be ye not stiffnecked, as your fathers were, but yield yourselves (give the hand) unto the LORD, and enter into his sanctuary, which he hath sanctified for ever: and serve the LORD your God, that the fierceness of his wrath may turn away from you.
2Ch 30:9 For if ye turn again unto the LORD, your brethren and your children shall find compassion before them that lead them captive, so that they shall come again into this land: for the LORD your God is gracious and merciful, and will not turn away his face from you, if ye return unto him.

Be Ready to give an answer
1Pe 3:15 But sanctify the Lord God in your hearts: and be ready always to give an answer to every man that asketh you a reason of the hope that is in you with meekness and fear:
2Ti 4:2 preach the Word, be urgent in season, out of season, convict, warn, encourage with all long-suffering and teaching.
Col 4:6 Let your word be always with grace, having been seasoned with salt, to know how you ought to answer each one.
Isa 50:4 The Lord YHWH has given to Me the tongue of learned ones, to know to help the weary with a word. He arouses in the morning; He wakens the ear to Me, to hear as the learned.

Yahshua/Jesus gives us understanding
Luk 24:45 Then He opened up their mind to understand the Scriptures,
Luk 21:15 For I will give you a mouth and wisdom, which all your adversaries shall not be able to gainsay nor resist.

Tremble at His Word
Isa 66:2 For all those things hath mine hand made, and all those things have been, saith the LORD: but to this man will I look, even to him that is poor and of a contrite spirit, and trembleth at my word.

Zeal w/out knowledge is not good
Rom 10:2 For I bear them record that they have a zeal of God, but not according to knowledge.
Hos 4:6 My people are destroyed for lack of knowledge: because thou hast rejected knowledge, I will also reject thee, that thou shalt be no priest to me: seeing thou hast forgotten the law of thy God, I will also forget thy children.

Ignorance no excuse
Luk 12:47 And that servant, which knew his lord’s will, and prepared not himself, neither did according to his will, shall be beaten with many stripes.
Luk 12:48 But he that knew not, and did commit things worthy of stripes, shall be beaten with few stripes. For unto whomsoever much is given, of him shall be much required: and to whom men have committed much, of him they will ask the more.

We err if we don’t study diligently
Mat 22:29 Jesus answered and said unto them, Ye do err, not knowing the scriptures, nor the power of God.

We are to be Doers and Hearers of the Word
Jas 1:22 But be ye doers of the word, and not hearers only, deceiving your own selves.
Mat 7:24 Therefore whosoever heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth them, I will liken him unto a wise man, which built his house upon a rock:

Love is the most important thing because we will never have all the answers until Messiah comes back.
Job 11:7 Canst thou by searching find out God? canst thou find out the Almighty unto perfection?
Job 11:8 It is as high as heaven; what canst thou do? deeper than hell; what canst thou know?
Rom 12:16 Be of the same mind one toward another. Mind not high things, but condescend to men of low estate. Be not wise in your own conceits.

1Co 8:2 And if any man think that he knoweth any thing, he knoweth nothing yet as he ought to know.
1Co 8:3 But if any man love God, the same is known of him.

Eph 3:14 For this cause I bow my knees unto the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ,
Eph 3:15 Of whom the whole family in heaven and earth is named,
Eph 3:16 That he would grant you, according to the riches of his glory, to be strengthened with might by his Spirit in the inner man;
Eph 3:17 That Christ may dwell in your hearts by faith; that ye, being rooted and grounded in love,
Eph 3:18 May be able to comprehend with all saints what is the breadth, and length, and depth, and height;
Eph 3:19 And to know the love of Christ, which passeth knowledge, that ye might be filled with all the fulness of God.
Php 4:7 And the peace of God, which passeth all understanding, shall keep your hearts and minds through Christ Jesus.

Better to Fear God than to have great wisdom
Sir 19:24 He that hath small understanding, and feareth God, is better than one that hath much wisdom, and transgresseth the law of the most High.

Ecc 12:13 Let us hear the conclusion of the whole matter: Fear God, and keep his commandments: for this is the whole duty of man.

2Pe 3:18 But grow in grace, and in the knowledge of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. To him be glory both now and for ever. Amen.

 

The Word is given to us line upon line so that we have to dig and seek and search to get to the Truth.

Pro 25:2  The glory of God is to conceal a thing, but the glory of kings is to search out a matter.
Isa 28:9 To whom shall He teach knowledge? And to whom shall He explain the message? Those weaned from milk, those moving from breasts?
Isa 28:10 For precept must be on precept, precept on precept; line on line, line on line; here a little, there a little.
Isa 28:11 For with stammering lip and other languages, He will speak to this people;
Isa 28:12 to whom He said, This is the rest; cause the weary to rest. Also, This is the repose. But they willed not to hear.
Isa 28:13 Yet the Word of YHWH was to them, precept on precept, precept on precept; line on line, line on line; here a little, there a little; that they might go, and stumble, and be broken, and snared, and taken.

Every Word of the Scriptures is important
2Ti 3:16 All Scripture is God-breathed and profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness,
2Ti 3:17 so that the man of God may be perfected, being fully furnished for every good work.

Exodus Rabba pg 74 SBEVol4
“There is not a word in Holy Writ without its purpose.”

In order to understand the Scriptures more fully we must learn the:
1) Language
2) Culture of the people in the Book
3) Customs of the people in the Book
4) Idioms of the Language
5) His creation

The Scriptures indicate that the natural things of the world teach of the spiritual. Everything in His creation points back to Him.
1Co 15:46 But not the spiritual first, but the natural; afterward the spiritual.

The Scriptures are written in shadows and parables.
Psa 78:1 A Lesson of Asaph. O my people, listen to my law; bow your ears to the words of my mouth.
Psa 78:2 I will open my mouth in a parable; I will pour forth dark sayings of old,
Psa 78:3 those which we have heard and known, and our fathers have told us.
Psa 78:4 We will not hide them from their sons; to declare to the coming generation the praises of YHWH; yea, His strength and His wonderful works that He has done.

Comparing Scripture with Scripture to understand the meaning of the text
1Co 2:13 Which things we also speak, not in words taught in human wisdom, but in Words taught of the Holy Spirit, comparing spiritual things with spiritual things.

No scripture is of any private interpretation. (II Peter 1:20-21).
2Pe 1:20 knowing this first, that every prophecy of Scripture did not come into being of its own interpretation;
2Pe 1:21 for prophecy was not at any time borne by the will of man, but being borne along by the Holy Spirit, holy men of God spoke.

According to the Aramaic translation of 2 Peter 1:21, no Scripture (specifically prophecy) can be properly interpreted by itself without other Scriptural support

LITV – Jay P Green Literal Version
2Pe 1:20 knowing this first, that every prophecy of Scripture did not come into being of its own interpretation;
Murdock Aramaic translation
2Pe 1:20 ye having the previous knowledge, that no prophecy is an exposition of its own text.
LBP Aramaic translation
2Pe 1:20 Knowing this first, that not every prophetic writing is made clear in its own book.
Etheridge Aramaic translation
2Pe 1:20 While this first you know, that every prophecy of the scripture its own solution [Or, every prophecy the solution of its scripture is not. Cul nebiutho shorio dacthobo diloh lo hovo.] is not.

Out of the mouth of two or three witnesses shall every word be established
Deu 17:6 At the mouth of two witnesses, or three witnesses, shall he that is worthy of death be put to death; but at the mouth of one witness he shall not be put to death.
Deu 19:15 One witness shall not rise up against a man for any iniquity, or for any sin, in any sin that he sinneth: at the mouth of two witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses, shall the matter be established.
Mat 18:16 But if he will not hear thee, then take with thee one or two more, that in the mouth of two or three witnesses every word may be established.
2Co 13:1 This is the third time I am coming to you. In the mouth of two or three witnesses shall every word be established.

EVERYTHING points to Messiah Yahshua/Jesus
The Torah, Prophets & Psalms (Writings) =the TaNaKH are the 3 witnesses of the Messiah

Joh 1:45 Philip finds Nathanael and said to him, We have found the One of whom Moses wrote in the Law and the Prophets, Jesus the son of Joseph, from Nazareth.
Joh 5:39 You search the Scriptures, for you think in them you have everlasting life. And they are the ones witnessing concerning Me.
Joh 5:46 For if you were believing Moses, you would then believe Me; for that one wrote concerning Me.
Joh 5:47 But if you do not believe his writings, how will you believe My Words?
Psa 40:7 Then I said, Lo, I come, in the roll of the Book it is written of Me;

Yahshua/Jesus and the apostles taught from the TaNaKH. Nestle’s Greek says New Testament contains 993 separate references from the TaNaKH.
Luk 24:27 And beginning from Moses, and from all the prophets, He explained to them the things about Himself in all the Scriptures.
Luk 24:44 And He said to them, These are the Words which I spoke to you yet being with you, that all the things must be fulfilled having been written in the Law of Moses, and the Prophets, and the Psalms, concerning Me.
Luk 24:45 Then He opened up their mind to understand the Scriptures,
Act 26:22 Then obtaining help from God, I stand until this day, witnessing both to small and to great, saying nothing else than what the prophets and Moses also said was going to happen:
Act 28:23 And having appointed him a day, more came to him in the lodging, to whom he expounded, earnestly testifying the kingdom of God and persuading them the things concerning Jesus, both from the Law of Moses and the Prophets, from morning until evening.
1Co 15:3 For I delivered to you in the first place what I also received, that Christ died for our sins, according to the Scriptures,
1Co 15:4 and that He was buried, and that He was raised the third day, according to the Scriptures,

% Old Testament in New Testament

Rabbinic thought agrees w/ the New Testament writers, who say all the prophets prophesy concerning the days of Messiah-Berakoth 34b, Sanhedrin 99a, 98b

“All the prophets prophesied only of the days of the Messiah.” [Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin 99a]
“The world was created but only for the Messiah.” [Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin 98b]
“Rabbi Johanan said, ‘The world was created for the sake of the Messiah, what is this Messiah’s name?’ The school of Rabbi Shila said, ‘his name is Shiloh, for it is written, until Shiloh comes. (Genesis 49:10)’” [Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin 98b]

Act 10:43 To this One all the Prophets witness, so that through His name everyone believing into Him will receive remission of sins.

The End was written from the Beginning (Genesis)
Isa 46:8 Remember this, and shew yourselves men: bring it again to mind, O ye transgressors.
Isa 46:9 Remember the former things of old: for I am God, and there is none else; I am God, and there is none like me,
Isa 46:10 Declaring the end from the beginning, and from ancient times the things that are not yet done, saying, My counsel shall stand, and I will do all my pleasure:

The Torah is historical, and at the same time prophetic
Ecc 1:9 The thing that hath been, it is that which shall be; and that which is done is that which shall be done: and there is no new thing under the sun.
Ecc 1:10 Is there any thing whereof it may be said, See, this is new? it hath been already of old time, which was before us.
Isa 42:9 Behold, the former things are come to pass, and new things do I declare: before they spring forth I tell you of them.

The Torah is our foundation for understanding the Scriptures. The prophets and writings build upon that foundation. Prophetically, Yahshua/Jesus is the Living Torah and God’s Firm Foundation. This Foundation is built upon by God’s apostles. (Isaiah 28:16; 1 Peter 2:5-6; 1 Corinthians 3:10-11; Ephesians 2:19-20; Matthew 7:24-26)

The Torah is a parable written specifically for the LAST generation
Psa 78:1 Give ear, O my people, to my law: incline your ears to the words of my mouth.
Psa 78:2 I will open my mouth in a parable: I will utter dark sayings of old:
Psa 78:3 Which we have heard and known, and our fathers have told us.
Psa 78:4 We will not hide them from their children, shewing to the generation to come the praises of the LORD, and his strength, and his wonderful works that he hath done.
Psa 78:5 For he established a testimony in Jacob, and appointed a law in Israel, which he commanded our fathers, that they should make them known to their children:
Psa 78:6 That the generation to come (LAST GENERATION דור אחרון) might know them, even the children which should be born; who should arise and declare them to their children:
Psa 78:7 That they might set their hope in God, and not forget the works of God, but keep his commandments:
Psa 78:8 And might not be as their fathers, a stubborn and rebellious generation; a generation that set not their heart aright, and whose spirit was not stedfast with God.
1Co 10:1 And I do not want you to be ignorant, brothers, that our fathers were all under the cloud, and all passed through the Sea.
1Co 10:2 And all were baptized to Moses in the cloud, and in the Sea,
1Co 10:3 and all ate the same spiritual food.
1Co 10:4 And all drank the same spiritual drink; for they drank of the spiritual rock following, and that Rock was Christ.
1Co 10:5 Yet God was not pleased with most of them, “for they were scattered in the deserted place.” Num. 14:16
1Co 10:6 But these things became examples for us, so that we may not be lusters after evil, even as those indeed lusted.
1Co 10:7 Neither be idolaters, even as some of them, as it has been written, “The people sat down to eat and drink, and stood up to play.” Ex. 32:6
1Co 10:8 Nor should we commit fornication, as some of them fornicated, and twenty three thousand fell in one day.
1Co 10:9 Neither test Christ, as some of them tried Him, and perished by serpents.
1Co 10:10 Neither should you murmur, as also some of them murmured, and perished by the destroyer.
1Co 10:11 And all these things happened to those as examples, and it was written for our warning, on whom the ends of the ages have come.

Biblical history, is Biblical prophecy
According to Rambam Nachmanides commentary on the Torah Genesis pg 168-169
“a great matter which our Rabbis mentioned briefly, saying: “Whatever has happened to the patriarchs is a sign to the children”…when an event happens to any one of the three patriarchs, that which is decreed to his children can be understood.”

R. Isaac Karo at the beginning of his commentary on the text says: “All that happens to the fathers is meant to happen to the sons, and all that happened to Abraham is a sign of the exile in Egypt, all that happened to Isaac is a sign of the Babylonian exile and all that happened to Jacob is a sign of our current exile… and indeed our exile is the worst, the most bitter, and the longest of them all “.

There are four layers of meaning to the Scriptures

However, no layer can contradict another. If our interpretation of a deeper spiritual teaching in the Scriptures contradicts the simple meaning of a verse, then we are in error
Tal. Shabbat 63a, Yebamoth 11b-a verse cannot be removed from its simple meaning

I. Peshat —> Literal

II. Remez —> One scripture tied to another scripture

III. Derash —> Derived interpretations of scripture through exegesis

IV. Sod —> Deeper spiritual meaning (dark sayings, mysteries)

These four levels of interpretation are abbreviated as PaRDeSPardes click herewhich is the Hebrew word for orchard. This is spoken of in Shir haShirim in allusion to the Garden of Eden
Son 4:11 Your lips, My spouse, drip like the honeycomb; honey and milk are under your tongue. And the scent of your garments is like the scent of Lebanon.
Son 4:12 A locked garden is My sister, My spouse; a spring locked up, a sealed fountain.
Son 4:13 Your plants are an orchard of pomegranates with excellent fruits, with henna and spikenard;
Son 4:14 spikenard and saffron, calamus and cinnamon; with all trees of frankincense, myrrh and aloes; with all the chief balsam spices;
Son 4:15 a fountain of gardens, a well of living waters; even flowings from Lebanon.
Son 4:16 Awake, north wind; yea, come, south wind; blow on my garden; let its spices flow out. Let my Beloved come into His garden and eat its excellent fruits.

This was the method of interpreting Scripture in ancient times. The problem is that the Pharisees and subsequent rabbis did not follow this rule. They did not keep in line with the simple meaning of the text but rather manipulated the text to justify their self professed authority over the people. Because the Pharisees perverted this system does not mean that it is irrelevant however. These ancient methods of interpretation were used by the writers of the New Testament text.

Surenhusius, Hebrew professor at Amsterdam, and editor of a very splendid and useful edition of the Mishna, in six vols. fol. published an express treatise on this subject, in 1713, full of deep research and sound criticism. He remarks great difference in the mode of quoting used in the Sacred Writings: as, It hath been said – it is written – that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophets – the Scripture says – see what is said – the Scripture foreseeing – he saith – is it not written? – the saying that is written, etc., etc. With great pains and industry, he has collected ten rules out of the Talmud and the rabbins, to explain and justify all the quotations made from the Old Testament in the New.
RULE I. Reading the words, not according to the regular vowel points, but to others substituted for them. He thinks this is done by Peter, Act_3:22, Act_3:23; by Stephen, Act_7:42, etc.; and by Paul, 1Co_15:54; 2Co_8:15.
RULE II. Changing the letters, as done by St. Paul, Rom_9:33; 1Co_9:9, etc.; Heb_8:9., etc.; Heb_10:5.
RULE III. Changing both letters and vowel points, as he supposes is done by St. Paul, Act_13:40, Act_13:41; 2Co_8:15.
RULE IV. Adding some letters, and retrenching others.
RULE V. Transposing words and letters.
RULE VI. Dividing one word into two.
RULE VII. Adding other words to make the sense more clear.
RULE VIII. Changing the original order of the words.
RULE IX. Changing the original order, and adding other words.
RULE X. Changing the original order, and adding and retrenching words, which he maintains is a method often used by St. Paul.

Understanding the Scriptures
7 Keys/seals found in Proverbs 2

Pro 2:1 My son (1), if thou wilt receive my words, and hide my commandments with thee (2);
Pro 2:2 So that thou incline thine ear unto wisdom, and apply thine heart to understanding (3);
Pro 2:3 Yea, if thou criest after knowledge, and liftest up thy voice for understanding (4);
Pro 2:4 If thou seekest her as silver, and searchest for her as for hid treasures (5);
Pro 2:5 Then shalt thou understand the fear of the LORD, and find the knowledge of God.
Pro 2:6 For the LORD giveth wisdom: out of his mouth cometh knowledge and understanding.
Pro 2:7 He layeth up sound wisdom for the righteous: he is a buckler to them that walk uprightly (6).
Pro 2:8 He keepeth the paths of judgment, and preserveth the way of his saints.
Pro 2:9 Then shalt thou understand righteousness, and judgment, and equity; yea, every good path.
Pro 2:10 When wisdom entereth into thine heart, and knowledge is pleasant unto thy soul (7);

1) Salvation Ezekiel 11:19; Luke 24:45
2) Meditate Psalm 119:99
3) Read Proverbs 15:14
4) Pray James 1:5; Lk 11:9
5) Seek Proverbs 28:5
6) Obey Psalm 107:43; 111:10; 119:100
7) Delight Proverbs 16:16

The Bible is a sealed Book
Isa 29:10 For the LORD hath poured out upon you the spirit of deep sleep, and hath closed your eyes: the prophets and your rulers, the seers hath he covered.
Isa 29:11 And the vision of all is become unto you as the words of a book that is sealed, which men deliver to one that is learned, saying, Read this, I pray thee: and he saith, I cannot; for it is sealed:

Our sinful minds darken our understanding
Psa 14:2 The LORD looked down from heaven upon the children of men, to see if there were any that did understand, and seek God.
Psa 14:3 They are all gone aside, they are all together become filthy: there is none that doeth good, no, not one.
Psa 14:4 Have all the workers of iniquity no knowledge? who eat up my people as they eat bread, and call not upon the LORD.
Dan 12:10 Many shall be purified, and made white, and tried; but the wicked shall do wickedly: and none of the wicked shall understand; but the wise shall understand.

Yahshua/Jesus gives us understanding…without Him there is no way to truly know the Truth. Without Him there can be numerous “papers on the wall” and initials before your name, but it does not mean you truly know Him or His Word.
Luk 24:45 Then opened he their understanding, that they might understand the scriptures,

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