Shadows of Messiah: The Constitution

UPDATED VERSION

“We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.”

The Constitution is an agreement that was made by the Founders to establish a government of ‘We the people,’ based on the natural law of God.  Its primary purpose is to secure the blessings of Liberty which come forth from the Creator which was proclaimed in the Declaration of Independence.  The Constitution of the United States is looked upon as the ‘supreme law’ of the land but it is in reality merely a contract on how to secure the rights which are given to man by their Creator.
The foundation of the Constitution is the Declaration of Independence.  In order to understand what the Constitution truly is, one must look to the Declaration of Independence and the  writings of the men who agreed upon this government.
“Do not separate text from historical background. If you do, you will have perverted and subverted the Constitution, which can only end in a distorted, bastardized form of illegitimate government.” {James Madison}

The Declaration of Independenceclick here begins with a proclamation that all men are equal and given unalienable rights by their Creator.  The Government of American then is based upon the Natural Law of God.

“When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.”

“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. — That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed”

“Locke, in particular, was the authority to whom the Patriots paid greatest deference.” {C. Edward Mosheim – A History of American Political Theories}

John Locke, to whom Thomas Jefferson and the Founders relied upon, defined The Natural Law as the Will of Godclick here.

Locke spoke of the Natural Law, or the Law of Reason as the Law of God in which man was given from the beginning.

“The Law, that was to govern Adam, was the same, that was to govern all his Posterity, the Law of Reason.

“Adam was created a perfect Man, his Body and Mind in full possession of their Strength and Reason, and so was capable, from the first Instant of his Being to provide for his own Support and Preservation, and govern his Actions according to the Dictates of the Law of Reason which God had implanted in him.”
John Locke defined the Natural Law as the Will of God.

“Thus the Law of Nature stands as an Eternal Rule to all Men, Legislators as well as others.  The Rules that they make for other Men’s Actions, must, as well as their own, and other Men’s Actions, be conformable to the Law of Nature, i.e. to the Will of God, of which that is a Declaration, and the fundamental Law of Nature being the preservation of Mankind, no Human Sanction can be good, or valid against it.” {John Locke – Of Civil Government pg 94}

The Holy Scriptures define the will of God as His Wordclick here (Psalm 40:8; Matthew 12:50; Luke 8:21).

Samuel Adams, who Jefferson proclaimed as the ‘Father of the American Revolution’ further established Locke’s definition as that which the Founders believed in.

Thomas Jefferson credited Samuel Adams with ‘steering’ America towards Independence.
“If there was any Palinurus to the Revolution, Samuel Adams was the man.” Palinurus was the helmsman of Aeneas’s ship in Virgil’s ‘Aeneid.’
Jefferson also declared Samuel Adams as “truly the Man of the Revolution.” {Old Revolutionaries – Maier Pauline pg 5}

“…The right to freedom being the gift of God Almighty…’The Rights of the Colonists as Christians’…may be best understood by reading and carefully studying the institutes of the great Law Giver and Head of the Christian Church, which are to be found clearly written and promulgated in the New Testament.” {Samuel Adams – Rights of the Colonists}

King Jesus

The Declaration of Independence declared that the Lord Yahshua was the only King of America and that Americans were all his servants and brethren (Matthew 23:8).

“We have no King but Jesus” – John Adams

“We have this day restored the Sovereign, to Whom alone men ought to be obedient.  He reigns in heaven and..from the rising to the setting sun, may His Kingdom come.” {Samuel Adams speaking to the Continental Congress 7/4/1776}

“In declaring their independence from earthly power and authority, our Founding Fathers declared their dependence upon Almighty God: ‘with firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence.”  Like the Pilgrims before them, they fully expected God to keep His side of the covenant as they obeyed His Word and followed His Spirit.” {Under God – Toby Mac and Michael Tait pg 18}

John Adams was on the ‘Committee Five’ who wrote the Declaration of Independence

John Adams in a letter written to Abigail on the day the Declaration was approved by Congress said:
“The Declaration of Independence laid the cornerstone of human government upon the first precepts of Christianity.”

“The general principles upon which the Fathers achieved independence were the general principals of Christianity… I will avow that I believed and now believe that those general principles of Christianity are as eternal and immutable as the existence and attributes of God.”

“As Men we have God for our King, and are under the Law of Reason: as Christians, we have Jesus the Messiah for our King, and are under the Law reveal’d by him in the Gospel.” {John Locke – The Reasonableness of Christianity}

James Madison: “Father of the Constitution & Bill of Rights”

At the Constitutional Convention of 1787, James Madison proposed the plan to divide the central government into three branches based upon Isaiah 33:22.  These 3 branches of government set up by the Constitution is a declaration that God is King and Savior.

Isaiah 33:22 For the LORD is our judge, the LORD is our lawgiver, the LORD is our king; he will save us.

Here it could be said that Madison and those who contributed to the writing of the Constitution sought a form of government where God would be the head of man and elected officials would serve to administer this concept. Of course due to sinful human nature, Americans never truly got to enjoy this type of government but at the heart of the Constitution and Bill of Rights this is the idea that is proposed. It is due to the sinful nature of man that Madison proposed the 3 branch system of checks and balances to prevent power from being centralized into the hands of a few.

The Declaration of Independence and the Constitution that was formed to establish the rights proclaimed in the Declaration, sets up Yahshua as King and puts all man on equal footing as His servants.  This is the essence of what America is.

“This American theory, expressed, ‘in words the memory of which can never die.’  It includes far more than it expresses; for by recognizing human equality and brotherhood, and the individual as the unit of society, it accepts the Christian idea of man as the basis of political institutions.” {The Rise of the Republic – Richard Frothingham}

The word America traces back to the Hebrew word עמל ‘amal’ which means to work as a servant.  This is the true purpose of America, to serve the Lord by revealing His good works.  This is why America is spoken of as the shining city on a hill.

Mat 5:14  Ye are the light of the world. A city that is set on an hill cannot be hid.
Mat 5:15  Neither do men light a candle, and put it under a bushel, but on a candlestick; and it giveth light unto all that are in the house.
Mat 5:16  Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father which is in heaven.

John Winthrop is to believed to have been the first to apply this Scripture to America in his 1630 sermon called ‘A Model of Christian Charity.’  Winthrop told the Massachusetts Bay colonists that their new community would be a city upon a hill which would be watched by the world.  The Pilgrims had traveled to America to find a land in which they could worship YHWH according to the dictates of their hearts.  It would be a land of religious freedom looked upon by their enemies in the hopes that they would fail.  They believed they were the vine planted in the wilderness spoken of by the Prophet Isaiah (Isaiah 5:1-7).  A kingdom that was to produce the fruit of the Word (Matthew 21:33-43) spreading forth the Gospel of Yahshua.

The Christian History of the Constitution of the United States of America – Verna M. Hall pg VIII
“Whence, then, did the ideas basic to American government originally emanate, and to what source must we look for a simple clarification of its original purpose?  To ask these questions should be to answer them.  The New Testament is the wellspring from which our political thought derives and the idealistic goal of that thinking was a political and social system actively conductive to Christian practise.  As the contemporary historian of Plymouth Plantation wrote, the motive of those who sailed on the Mayflower was their ‘great hope and inward zeal…for propagating and advancing the Gospel of the Kingdom of Christ in those remote parts of the world.’”

When the Pilgrims reached the New World they signed the Mayflower Compact which was for the ‘glorie of God, and advancement of ye Christian faith.’

“The past few days when I’ve been at that window upstairs, I’ve thought a bit of the “shining city upon a hill.” The phrase comes from John Winthrop, who wrote it to describe the America he imagined. What he imagined was important because he was an early Pilgrim, an early freedom man. He journeyed here on what today we’d call a little wooden boat; and like the other Pilgrims, he was looking for a home that would be free.” {Farewell Address to the Nation 1/11/1989}

Ronald Reagan was most responsible for bringing back this idea of America as ‘shining city upon a hill.’

“I’ve always believed that this blessed land was set apart in a special way, that some divine plan placed this great continent here between the two oceans to be found by people from every corner of the Earth — people who had a special love for freedom and the courage to uproot themselves, leave their homeland and friends to come to a strange land. And, when coming here, they created something new in all the history of mankind — a country where man is not beholden to government, government is beholden to man.”

“Each year, government bureaucracies spend bills [billions] for problems related to drugs and alcoholism and disease. Has anyone stopped to consider that we might come closer to balancing the budget if all of us simply tried to live up to the Ten Commandments and the Golden Rule?”

Think of it: the most awesome military machine in history, but it is no match for that one, single man, hero, strong yet tender, Prince of Peace. His name alone, Jesus, can lift our hearts, soothe our sorrows, heal our wounds, and drive away our fears. He gave us love and forgiveness. He taught us truth and left us hope. In the Book of John is the promise that we all go by — tells us that “For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have everlasting life.”

With His message and with your conviction and commitment, we can still move mountains. We can work to reach our dreams and to make America a shining city on a hill.” {At the Annual Convention of the National Religious Broadcasters 1/31/1983}

עמל ‘amal,’ from whence comes the word America, has various translations.  As mentioned above it means to work or serve but it is also translated as to labor or toil, to be weary to the point of pain and even perverseness or wickedness as these things bring forth toil and pain.

Such is this nation.  From the beginning there were those who desired to use this nation as a conduit to the ‘new order of the ages’ and the kingdom of the beast versus those who wished to use this country as a conduit to share the Gospel and lead man unto the Kingdom of Heaven.

עמל  ‘amal’ comes from the root על ‘al’ which means to be yoked.  Who are we going to be yoked with?  Messiah or the beast?  The Word or lawlessness?  The constitution or dictates of tyrants?  What message do we wish to share with the world?  Amazingly the word for shoe/sandal/being shod with the Gospel/message (Ephesians 6:15) is נעל ‘naal’ which comes from this root word על.

We are set free to serve YHWH
1Pe 2:16  as free, and not having freedom as a cover of evil, but as slaves of God;

We are delivered from the yoke of slavery to serve YHWH and be yoked with Him
Lev 26:13  I am the LORD your God, which brought you forth out of the land of Egypt, that ye should not be their bondmen; and I have broken the bands of your yoke, and made you go upright.
Mat 11:28  Come unto me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest.
Mat 11:29  Take my yoke upon you, and learn of me; for I am meek and lowly in heart: and ye shall find rest unto your souls.
Mat 11:30  For my yoke is easy, and my burden is light.

Further connecting this concept of the Gospel versus evil is seen in the number 1776.  The phrase “and they shall call thee, the city of YHWH, The Zion of the Holy One of Israel” from Isaiah 60:14 has the numerical equivalent of 1776.

The evil side of 1776 is seen in the occult concept of 888 x 2 which equals 1776.  888 is the sum of the letters in Greek of the name Jesus.

A second “messiah” (888) plus the first messiah (888) = 1776.

America’s founding date, 1776 is a number representing a 2nd messiah or the “king” of the World Order. It symbolizes the advent of a god man on earth.

According to the ‘illuminated elite,’ as the first messiah came to establish the Kingdom of Heaven, the second illuminated messiah will establish a New World under his rule. Concerning this messiah, Manly P. Hall, wrote:

“The outcome of the ‘secret destiny’ is a World Order ruled by a King with supernatural powers. This King was descended of a divine race; that is, he belonged to the Order of the Illumined for those who come to a state of wisdom then belong to a family of heroes-perfected human beings… “ {The Secret Destiny of America., pg 26}

This is was not the desire of the Pilgrims who came to this country to escape this type of evil kingdom, nor was it the desire of the Founders of this country.

“It was not my intention to doubt that, the Doctrines of the Illuminati, and principles of Jacobinism had not spread in the United States. On the contrary, no one is more truly satisfied of this fact than I am. The idea that I meant to convey, was, that I did not believe that the Lodges of Free Masons in this Country had, as Societies, endeavoured to propagate the diabolical tenets of the first, or pernicious principles of the latter (if they are susceptible of separation). {George Washington – Letter to Rev. G. W. Snyder, October 24, 1798}

Many today try to apply ‘Illuminati’ goals to the Founders of this nation, but in my research I have to the same conclusion as George Washington did.  The foundation of the United States was not to bring about a new world order of the antichrist but to preserve the unalienable rights of man that the Gospel of the Lord Yahshua might be spread to the world.

“I believe notwithstanding, that none of the Lodges in this Country are contaminated with the principles ascribed to the Society of the Illuminati. With respect I am &c.” – {George Washington – Letter to G. W. Snyder, September 25, 1798}

The ‘New Order of the Ages’ can be looked upon in two different ways.  One is the evil side, the ‘new world order.’  The other is a partial fulfillment of YHWH’s promise to David.
2 Samuel 7:10  And I will designate a place for My people Israel, and will plant them, that they may dwell in their own place and not be made to tremble any more. Nor shall the sons of evil afflict them again, as at the first,

This promise is linked to the exile of Israel in to ‘another land’ spoken of by Moses.
Deu 29:28  And YHWH rooted them out of their land in anger and wrath, and in great indignation, and cast them into another land, as it is this day.

‘Another land’ comes from the Hebrew phrase ארץ אחרת ‘eretz acheret’ which can be translated ‘new world.’

The Founders saw themselves as Israelclick here.

The original seal of the United States which was to be a picture of Moses leading Israel through the Red Sea with Pharaoh and his chariots being drowned.

“Resolved, That Dr. Franklin, Mr. J. Adams and Mr. Jefferson, be a committee, to bring in a device for a seal for the United States of America.” – July 4, 1776, Journals of Continental Congress

Benjamin Franklin proposed:
“Moses standing on the Shore, and extending his Hand over the Sea, thereby causing the same to overwhelm Pharaoh who is sitting in an open Chariot, a Crown on his Head and a Sword in his Hand. Rays from a Pillar of Fire in the Clouds reaching to Moses, to express that he acts by Command of the Deity.   “Motto, Rebellion to Tyrants is Obedience to God.”

Thomas Jefferson also suggested allegorical scenes. For the front of the seal: children of Israel in the wilderness, led by a cloud by day and a pillar of fire by night.

America had the same number of citizens as Israel had when they left Egypt.  Ezra Stiles, in his Election Sermon entitled ‘The United States Elevated to Glory and Honor’ (Deuteronomy 26:19) recognized this fact.

“TAUGHT by the omniscient Deity, Moses foresaw and predicted the capital events relative to Israel, through the successive changes of depression and glory, until their final elevation to the first dignity and eminence among the empires of the world….the history of the hebrew theocracy shews, that the secular welfare of God’s antient people depended upon their virtue, their religion, their observance of that holy covenant, which Israel entered into with God, on the plains at the foot of Nebo on the other side Jordan. Here Moses the man of God assembled three million of people, the number of the united states, recapitulated and gave them a second publication of the sacred jural institute, delivered thirty-eight years before, with the most awful solemnity at mount Sinai.”

“I shall enlarge no further upon the primary sense and Eternal accomplishment of this and numerous other prophecies respecting both Jews and Gentiles, in the latter day glory of the church. For I have assumed the text, only as introductory to a discourse upon the political welfare of God’s American Israel; and as allusively prophetic of the future prosperity and splendor of the United States. We may then consider

I. What reason we have to expect that, by the blessing of God, these States may prosper and flourish into a great American Republic; and ascend into high and distinguished honor among the nations of the earth. To make thee high above all nations, which he hath made in praise, and in name, and in honor.

II. That our system of dominion and CIVIL POLITY would be imperfect, without the true RELIGION; or, that from the diffusion of virtue among the people of any community, would arise their greatest secular happiness: which will terminate in this conclusion, that Holiness ought to be the end of all civil government. That thou mayest be an holy people unto the Lord thy God.”{Ezra Stiles – The United States Elevated to Glory and Honor 5/8/1783}

“The Pilgrim wanted liberty for  himself and his wife and little ones, and for his brethren, to walk with God in a Christian life as the rules and motives of such a life were revealed to him from God’s Word.” {Pilgrim Republic – John Goodwin}

The Founders of this country walked in the footsteps of their Pilgrim forefathers.
“And so it was that out of rare public virtue grew our great republican government…It was said to a people trained under Christian influences, who habitually looked upward in every form of supplication, that the spirit which actuated the United Colonies ‘was as much from God as the descent of the Holy Ghost on the day of Pentecost, and was introductory to something great and good to mankind.’” {Richard Frothingham – The Rise of the Republic}

Daniel Webster

In 1820 at a discourse delivered at Plymouth, Daniel Webster further solidified the concept that the American form of government is based upon the desire  of the Pilgrims to walk in the Word.

“At the moment of their landing, therefore, they possessed institutions of government, and institutions of religion: and friends and families, and social and religious institutions, framed by consent, founded on choice and preference, how nearly do these fill up our whole idea of country! The morning that beamed on the first night of their repose saw the Pilgrims already at home in their country. There were political institutions, and civil liberty, and religious worship. Poetry has fancied nothing, in the wanderings of heroes, so distinct and characteristic. Here was man, indeed, unprotected, and unprovided for, on the shore of a rude and fearful wilderness; but it was politic, intelligent, and educated man. Every thing was civilized but the physical world. Institutions, containing in substance all that ages had done for human government, were organized in a forest. Cultivated mind was to act on uncultivated nature; and, more than all, a government and a country were to commence, with the very first foundations laid under the divine light of the Christian religion. Happy auspices of a happy futurity! Who would wish that his country’s existence had otherwise begun? Who would desire the power of going back to the ages of fable? Who would wish for an origin obscured in the darkness of antiquity? Who would wish for other emblazoning of his country’s heraldry, or other ornaments of her genealogy, than to be able to say, that her first existence was with intelligence, her first breath the inspiration of liberty, her first principle the truth of divine religion?”

“Finally, let us not forget the religious character of our origin. Our fathers were brought hither by their high veneration for the Christian religion. They journeyed by its light, and labored in its hope. They sought to incorporate its principles with the elements of their society, and to diffuse its influence through all their institutions, civil, political, or literary. Let us cherish these sentiments, and extend this influence still more widely; in the full conviction, that that is the happiest society which partakes in the highest degree of the mild and peaceful spirit of Christianity.” {Daniel Webster – Plymouth Oration 1820}

John Quincy Adams

John Quincy Adams expressed similar sentiments.

“When our fathers abjured the name of Britons, and ‘assumed among the nations of the earth the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and of nature’s God entitled them..they announced themselves as reformers of the institutions of civil society. They spoke of the law of nature, and in the name of nature’s God; and by that sacred adjuration they pledged us, their children, to labor with united and concerted energy, from the cradle to the grave, to purge the earth of all slavery; to restore the peace of man to full enjoyment of those rights which the God of nature had bestowed upon him at his birth; to disenthrall his limbs from chains, to break the fetters from his feet and the manacles from his hands, and to set him free for the use of all his physical powers for the improvement of his own condition.”

“The God in whose name they spoke had taught them, in the revelation of the Gospel, that the only way in which man can discharge his duty to Him is by loving his neighbor as himself, and doing with him as he would be done by; respecting his rights while enjoying his own, and applying all his emancipated powers of body and of mind to self-improvement and the improvement of his race.”

“Why is it that, next to the birthday of the Savior of the world, your most joyous and most venerated festival returns on this day [the Fourth of July]?” “Is it not that, in the chain of human events, the birthday of the nation is indissolubly linked with the birthday of the Savior? That it forms a leading event in the progress of the Gospel dispensation? Is it not that the Declaration of Independence first organized the social compact on the foundation of the Redeemer’s mission upon earth? That it laid the cornerstone of human government upon the first precepts of Christianity?” {John Quincy Adams – Fourth of July speech at Newburyport, Massachusetts 1837}

“The highest glory of the American Revolution was this; it connected in one indissoluble bond the principles of civil government with the principles of Christianity.”  {John Quincy Adams on July 4, 1821}

Ronald Reagan also understood the concept of the Declaration of Independence being associated with the Gospel.

“It’s not good enough to have equal access to our law; we must also have equal access to the higher law – the law of God. George Washington warned that morality could not prevail in exclusion of religious principles. And Jefferson asked, ‘Can the liberties of a nation be thought secure, when we’ve removed their only firm basis, a conviction in the minds of people that these liberties are the gifts of God?’ We must preserve the noble promise of the American dream for every man, woman, and child in this land. And make no mistake, we can preserve it, and we will. That promise was not created by America. It was given to America as a gift from a loving God – a gift proudly recognized by the language of liberty in the world’s greatest charters of freedom: our Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the Bill of Rights.” {At the Annual Meeting of the American Bar Association 8/1/1983}

In May 1854, the Congress of the United States of America passed a resolution declaring:

“The great vital and conservative element in our system is the belief of our people in the pure doctrines and divine truths of the gospel of Jesus Christ.”

Joh 8:31  Then said Jesus to those Jews which believed on him, If ye continue in my word, then are ye my disciples indeed;
Joh 8:32  And ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free.

Gal 5:1  Stand fast therefore in the liberty wherewith Christ hath made us free, and be not entangled again with the yoke of bondage.

2Co 3:17  Now the Lord is that Spirit: and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty.

The unalienable rights of the Creator, or Natural Law is in reality the Law of God/Bible.

The Declaration of Independence came about, at least in part, as a means to preserve religious liberty and continue the ability of the colonists to live in the Word.

“The measure was urged as necessary to insure permanency to the civil and religious institutions of the colonies, as essential to their material prosperity, in order to secure fair scope for the industrial energies of the land, as vital to the expansion of American ideas over the continent, and to the creation of an opening for the spread of the Gospel, as the only escape from tyranny, and the only guaranty of that government which is ‘an ordinance of Heaven to restrain the usurpation of wicked men, to secure to all the enjoyment of their natural rights, and to promote the highest political interests and happiness of society.’  It was urged that independence ‘was the path of empire, glory, liberty, and peace,’ and that labor in such a cause was labor on the side of Providence.  ‘The Almighty’, said Chief Justice Dayton, of South Carolina, from the bench, ‘created America to be independent of Great Britain: to refuse our labors in this divine work is to refuse to be a great, a free, a pious, and a happy people.’” {Rise of the Republic – Richard Frothingham}

J. Wingate Thornton, in his book ‘The Pulpit of the American Revolution,’ declared that the Bible was the ‘political text-book of the patriots.’

Noah Webster

“The foundation of American constitutionalism was an understanding by the American people of the Gospel and Biblical law.” {God’s Law & the United States Constitution – Noah Webster}

“The religion which has introduced civil liberty is the religion of Christ and His apostles, which enjoins humility, piety, and benevolence; which acknowledges in every person a brother, or a sister, and a citizen with equal rights. This is genuine Christianity, and to this we owe our free Constitutions of Government.” {Noah Webster}

“The brief exposition of the constitution of the United States, will unfold to young persons the principles of republican government; and it is the sincere desire of the writer that our citizens should early understand that the genuine source of correct republican principles is in the Bible, particularly the New Testament of the Christian religion.” {History of the United States – Noah Webster pg 307}

“The document that was approved by the Constitutional Convention in September 1787 and sent to the states for ratification had both a Christian power and form—a Christian power because the source of the Founders’ ideas primarily came from the Bible. The brief summary of the development of ideas of liberty given above reveal this to be the case, plus this is affirmed by a direct examination of the source of their political ideas. A study was published in The American Political Science Review that listed the citations from about 15,000 political documents written by the Founders between 1760 and 1805. By far the most quoted source in these political documents was the Bible—thirty-four percent of all citations. The great majority of the remaining sources were from writers with Biblical ideas.” {The Relative Influence of European Writers on Late Eighteenth-Century American Political Thought – Donald S. Lutz pg 189-197}

“It was to their clergyman that the colonists looked to guide their new governments, and in their clergymen they believed, lay all that was necessary and proper for their lawful and righteous government.  It followed, therefore, that the ‘Word of God’ played a greater part in the progress and practice of law than the words of Bacon, Littleton, or Coke.” {History of Harvard Law School and Early Legal Conditions in America – Charles Warren pg 4}

“American Federalism, the practice of self-government at every level of society and government, could not have been learned apart from the study of the Bible.  Therefore the history of the Bible and the history of American liberty are inseparable.” {The Bible and the Constitution of the United States of America – Verna M. Hall & Rosalie J. Slater}

“This Nation was settled by immigrants seeking religious freedom. Our Declaration of Independence as well as the Constitution of the United States embraced concepts of civil government inspired by the Holy Scriptures. As a nation we have been led by great leaders—among them Presidents Washington, Jackson, Lincoln, and Wilson—who personally knew and paid tribute to the surpassing influence that the Bible is, in the words of the President Jackson, “the rock on which our Republic rests.”

Our joint resolution—introduced on a bipartisan basis—is straightforward. The joint resolution notes the surpassing influence the Bible has had in the formation of this Nation, and its roots in our early settlement and our form of civil government. The joint resolution requests the President to designate 1983 as the Year of the Bible “in recognition of the formative influence the Bible has been for our Nation, and of our national need to study and apply the teachings of the Holy Scriptures.”  {Joint Congressional Resolutions Declaring 1983 as the Year of the Bible; Public Law 97-280 – October 4, 1982}

Ronald Reagan further displayed these thoughts in his statements when signing the above legislation.

“Of the many influences that have shaped the United States into a distinctive nation and people, none may be said to be more fundamental and enduring than the Bible.”

“Deep religious beliefs stemming from the Old and New Testaments of the Bible inspired many of the early settlers of our country, providing them with the strength, character, convictions, and faith necessary to withstand great hardship and danger in this new and rugged land. These shared beliefs helped forge a sense of common purpose among the widely dispersed colonies — a sense of community which laid the foundation for the spirit of nationhood that was to develop in later decades.”

“The Bible and its teachings helped form the basis for the Founding Fathers’ abiding belief in the inalienable rights of the individual, rights which they found implicit in the Bible’s teachings of the inherent worth and dignity of each individual. This same sense of man patterned the convictions of those who framed the English system of law inherited by our own Nation, as well as the ideals set forth in the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution.”

Securing the Blessings of Liberty

“We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.”

John Locke summed up the purpose of government as a creation of civil society that is meant to protect property.  Property is that which one owns, including ‘life, liberty and estate.’

James Madison, who is the ‘Father of the Constitution and Bill of Rights’ echoed Locke’s words.

“Government is instituted to protect property of every sort…This being the end of government” {James Madison ‘Property’ 1792}

William Penn

William Penn said the goal of government was to glorify God and be for the good of mankind.

“Whereas the glory of the Almighty God and the good of mankind is the reason and end of government, and therefore government itself is a vernable ordinance of God, and forasmuch as it is principally devised and intended by the Proprietary and Governor and freemen of Pennsylvania and territories thereunto belonging, to make and establish such laws as shall best preserve true Christian and civil liberty, in opposition to all unchristian, licentious, and unjust practices, whereby God may have his due, Caesar his due, and the people their due…” {William Penn – The Great Law: First Legislative Act in the Colony}

The Purpose of government can be summed up in the Golden Rule.

John Locke wrote that all men are naturally in a ‘state of perfect freedom’ and ‘a State also of Equality.’  He defined this liberty by the ‘Golden Rule of ‘do unto others as ye would have them do unto you.’  As all men are equal and in a state of liberty, so we must treat one another with love if we wish to receive the same.

“And Reason, which is that Law, teaches all Mankind, who will be consult it, that being all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his Life, Health, Liberty, or Possessions.  For Men being all the Workmanship of one Omnipotent, and infinitely wise Maker: All the Servants of one Sovereign Master, sent into the World by his Order, and about his Business, they are his Property, whose Workmanship they are, made to last during his, not one another’s Pleasure.”

The foundation of the government of the United States is this Golden Rule.  The Law of Loveclick here.  The purpose of the Constitution and the government established therein is to preserve this love between man.

As the purpose of the Constitution is to preserve this law of love, it is the responsibility of the people to walk in this love.

“We have staked the whole future of American civilization, not upon the power of government, far from it. We’ve staked the future of all our political institutions upon our capacity…to sustain ourselves according to the Ten Commandments of God.” {James Madison to the General Assembly of the State of Virginia 1778}

In Examination Webster compares the Constitution to “the promulgation of the Jewish laws at Mount Sinai.” {On Being American – Noah Webster pg 48}

“When Americans are Biblically educated and practising the two great commandments of our Lord, love for God, and love for man (Matt. 22:36-39), then our constitutional form of government works.  It will not function correctly without this education.  It is dependent upon Christian self-government with union in all phases of human experience. {The Bible and The Constitution of the United States of America – Verna M. Hall & Rosalie J. Slater pg 10}

John Adams spoke of the need of virtue amongst Americans in order for the Republic to be successful.  Scripture declares that this virtue comes from the Almighty, whose end is love.

“Private and public virtue is the only Foundation of Republics.” {John Adams}

“Statesmen…may plan and speculate for Liberty, but it is Religion and Morality alone, which can establish the Principles upon which Freedom can securely stand…. The only foundation of a free Constitution, is pure Virtue, and if this cannot be inspired into our People, in a great Measure, than they have it now, They may change their Rulers, and the forms of Government, but they will not obtain a lasting Liberty.” {John Adams letter to Zabdiel Adams on June 21, 1776}

In his Inaugural address, Adams stated that virtue can only come from the Creator.
“And may that Being who is supreme over all, the Patron of Order, the Fountain of Justice, and the Protector in all ages of the world of virtuous liberty, continue His blessing upon this nation and its Government and give it all possible success and duration consistent with the ends of His providence.”

2Pe 1:3  As His divine power has given to us all things pertaining to life and godliness through the full knowledge of the One calling us through glory and virtue,
2Pe 1:4  by which means He has given to us the very great and precious promises, so that through these you might be partakers of the divine nature, escaping from the corruption in the world by lust.
2Pe 1:5  But also in this very thing, having brought in all diligence, having fully supplied in your faith virtue, and with virtue knowledge,
2Pe 1:6  and with the knowledge self-control, and with the self-control patience, and with the patience godliness,
2Pe 1:7  and with the godliness brotherly love, and with brotherly love, love.

1Pe 2:9  But you are “an elect race,” “a royal priesthood,” “a holy nation,” “a people for possession,” so that “you may openly speak of the virtues” of the One who has called you out of darkness into His marvelous light;

“We have no government armed with power capable of contending with human passions unbridled by morality and religion. Avarice, ambition, revenge, or gallantry, would break the strongest cords of our Constitution as a whale goes through a net. Our Constitution was made only for a moral and religious people. It is wholly inadequate to the government of any other.”  {John Adams -The Works of John Adams  Vol. IX, p. 229, October 11, 1798}

“It must be felt that there is no national security but in the nation’s humble acknowledged dependence upon God and His overruling providence.” {John Adams}

If the people cannot walk in love, then the government must become more powerful to protect the rights of the people.

In the Garden of Eden, sin did not exist and hence there was no need for government as man could properly rule himself without harming his neighbor. It is due to sinful nature that man inherited after the Fall government is needed. Man must rule over his sinful nature in one form or another. Either man governs himself or other men must do it for him.

James Madison understood this Biblical view of human nature and spoke of the need for government to be based upon this realistic viewpoint.

“But what is government itself but the greatest of all reflections on human nature? If men were angels, no government would be necessary. If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on government would be necessary. In framing a government which is to be administered by men over men, the great difficulty lies in this: you must first enable the government to control the governed; and in the next place oblige it to control itself.” {James Madison Federalist Papers #51}

Madison was elected to the Virginia Constitutional Convention in April, 1776 where he framed its constitution.  He later referred to Virginia’s Declaration of Rights as “the basis and foundation of government.” In the constitution he declared the principle of freedom of religion but also spoke of the importance of walking in love towards one another.

James Madison wrote section 16 of the Virginia Declaration of Rights as follows: “Religion, or the duty we owe to our Creator, and manner of discharging it, can be directed only by reason and conviction, not by force or violence; and, therefore, that all men should enjoy the fullest toleration in the exercise of religion according to the dictates of conscience, unpunished and unrestrained by the magistrate, unless under color of religion any man disturb the peace, the happiness, or safety of society, and that it is the mutual duty of all to practice Christian forbearance, love and charity toward each other.” {The Proceedings of the Convention of Delegates, Held at the Capitol in the City of Williamsburg, in the Colony of Virginia, on Monday the 6th of May, 1776}

The purpose the Constitution is to preserve liberty.  Liberty cannot be fully realized without the law.

“There is a twofold liberty, natural (I mean as our nature is now corrupt) and civil or federal).  The first is common to man with beasts and other creatures.  By this, man as he stands in relation to man siply, hath liberty to do what he lists: it is a liberty to evil as well as to good.  This liberty is incompatible and inconsistent with authority, and cannot endure the least restraint of the most just authority.  The exercise and maintaining of this liberty makes men grow more evil, and in time to be worse than brute beasts: omnes sumus licentia deteriores. This is that great enemy of truth and peace, that wild beast, which all the ordinances of God are bent against, to restrain or subdue it.

The other kind of liberty I call civil or federal; it may also be termed moral, in reference to the covenant between God and man, in the moral law, and the politic covenants and constitutions, amongst men themselves.  This liberty is the proper end and object of authority, and cannot subsist without it; and it is a liberty to that only which is good, just, and honest.  This liberty you are to stand for, with the hazard (not only of your goods, but) of your lives, if need be.  Whatsoever crosseth this is not authority, but a distemper thereof.  This liberty is maintained and exercised in a way of subjection to authority; it is of the same kind of liberty wherewith Christ hath made us free…” {John Winthrop – Little Speech on Liberty 1645}

This is the concept of freedom in Scripture.  There is freedom IN YHWH or freedom FROM YHWH.  One brings life, the other deathclick here.

A More Perfect Union

“We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.”

Union only comes through loveclick here.  Love is the foundation of the law of God upon which the Constitution is based. (Colossians 3:14; 1 Corinthians 13:9-13; Romans 13:10; 1 John 4:10, 12, 16; 5:3).

The primary purpose of this government is to preserve and protect the rights given by YHWH, to ‘secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity.’ The Founders understood that man was not perfect and so the union of the states was not perfect either. The Constitution was made with the provision of amendments which could be made in order for the union to continue in the ‘perfecting’ process until citizens could truly walk in the perfect law of liberty where each man could fully enjoy the rights of the Creator.

The Constitution of the United States was founded upon the words ‘We the people, in order to form a more perfect union.’ The idea of the Founders was to establish a government which was based upon the natural law of God. The unalienable rights of life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.  As mentioned before, these rights are display the Word of God.  It is through His Word that a ‘perfect union’ is brought forth (Psalm 50:5; Isaiah 49:3-9; Hebrews 13:20-21; Jeremiah 50:5; Ephesians 2:15; Colossians 1:20; 2:1-11).

A Republic where the government is by the people and for the people is based upon the principles of Christianity. This phrase, made famous by Abraham Lincoln was taken from the words of John Wycliffe, the first man to translate the Bible into the English language.

“This Bible is for the government of the people, by the people, for the people.” – John Locke

Biblically, unity comes through walking by His Word (1John 1:3-7) in love (Colossians 3:14; 1 Corinthians 13:9-13; Romans 13:10; 1 John 4:10, 12, 16; 5:3). The main goal of unity is perfection of the saints (Matthew 5:48; Romans 12:2; 1 Corinthians 13:9-13; Ephesians 4:11-13; Philippians 3:14-15; Colossians 1:28; 3:14; 4:12; Romans 10:4; Psalm 119:1).

In the natural, unity amongst patriots/countryman is through the Constitution.  The Greek word for brotherly love is φιλαδελφία ‘philadelphia.’  Is it any surprise that the Constitution was written in Philadelphia?

The Word of God is perfect (Psalm 19:7; James 1:25), but cannot bring man to perfection because man is not perfect (Hebrews 7:19; 10:1). The Word of God is the ‘perfect law of liberty’ but men who have tried to walk in this perfect law have never seen true liberty because of the sin which dwells within man enslaves Him (Romans 7:14-25; 9:31-32). It is only through the law of liberty being implanted into the heart of man that a change can occur which leads to perfection (Ezekiel 11:19-20; Romans 2:28-29; Colossians 2:11-13; 2 Corinthians 3:3, 6, 17-18).

It is through this ‘circumcision of the heart’ that the true intent of the law can be revealed in the lives of believers. The true intent of the law of God is not to make men religious but to reform men into the image of their God who is love (1 John 4:8). It is this love that unites us and perfects us. It is the bond of perfection (Colossians 3:14) which sets man free (Galatians 5:13-14).

This is why the Founders set in place the ability to amend the Constitution.  The Constitution is an agreement or covenant between people of this nation to abide by the natural law of God, the rights proclaimed in the Declaration of Independence.  It is not the law in and of itself.

The rights upon which this nation is founded are true and unchangeable but the men who declared these things were not perfect. The Founders declared that all men were created equal, yet for over 80 years slavery was legal in this country. During the days of Abraham Lincoln, slavery was abolished but for another 100 years blacks were still treated as less than equal. Today, injustice and divisions between groups of people still occur. However, as can be seen by the history of this nation, the hope of change unto perfection is still there.

This is why it is so important to put into office men who understand the Constitution and walk in uprightness that comes from relationship with God.

“When you become entitled to exercise the right of voting for public officers, let it be impressed on your mind that God commands you to choose for rulers, just men who will rule in the fear of God.  The preservation of a republican government depends on the faithful discharge of this duty; if the citizends neglect their duty and place unprincipled men in office, the government will soon be corrupted; laws will be made, not for the public good, so much as for selfish or local purposes; corrupte or incompetent men will be appointed to execute the laws; the public revenues will be squandered on unworthy men; and the rights of the citizens will be violated or disregarded.  If a republican government fails to secure public prosperity and happiness, it must be because the citizens neglect the divine commands, and elect bad men to make and administer the laws.  Intriguing men can never be safely trusted.” {History of the United States – Noah Webster pg 307-308}

The Bible and the Constitution of the United States of America – Verna Hall pg 11
“He (Jesus Christ) gives them (disciples) a bond of union, – by which they should always be linked to Him and to each other in the principle of love…It is instructive that the characteristic mark of Christianity should thus be asserted by its Founder to consist, not in any formulary or songs, but in the love which asserts the brotherhood of man.  The apologists of the first century delighted in appealing to the striking fact of the common love of Christians, which was a new thing in the history of mankind; and while the Church has sometimes forgotten the characteristic, the world never has.  By their love for each other, for mankind, and for God, is it known or denied that men who call themselves Christians are really Christ’s disciples.”

This was the same love that the Patriots who founded the United States based their ideology upon.  John Quincy Adams wrote “The God in whose name they spoke had taught them, in the revelation of the Gospel, that the only way in which man can discharge his duty to Him is by loving his neighbor as himself, and doing with him as he would be done by; respecting his rights while enjoying his own, and applying all his emancipated powers of body and mind to self-improvement and the improvement of his race.” {The Bible and the Constitution of the United States of America – Verna Hall pg 19}

John Witherspoon in his Fast Day Sermon of May 17, 1776 wrote
“Upon the whole, I beseech you to make wise improvement of the present threatening aspect of public affairs and to remember that your duty God, to your country, to your families, and to yourselves is the same.  True religion is nothing else but and inward temper and outward conduct suited to your state and circumstance in Providence at any time.  And as peace with God and conformity to Him, adds to the sweeness of created comforts while we possess them, so in times of difficulty and trial, it is in the man of piety and inward principle that we may expect to find the uncorrupted patriot, the useful citizen, and the invincible soldier, – God grant that in America true religion and civil liberty may be inseperable, and the unjust attempts to destroy the one, may in the issue tend to the support and establishment of both.” {The Bible and the Constitution of the United States of America – Verna Hall pg 22}

The principle of liberty in Christ is found in the Golden Rule (Matthew 7:12) and the concept of ‘working out one’s salvation with fear and trembling’ (Philippians 2:12).  The Golden Rule is summed up in the great commandment of love thy neighbor as thy self (Leviticus 19:18).

Scripture declares that love of one’s fellow man is equated with love of God (1 John 4:11-12, 20-21) and is the fulfillment and purpose of His Word (Matthew 22:39-40; Romans 13:8-10; Galatians 6:2). This is the basis of the Declaration of Independence and the true meaning of walking in liberty (Galatians 5:13-14).

John Locke wrote that all men are naturally in a ‘state of perfect freedom’ and ‘a State also of Equality.’ He defined this liberty by the ‘Golden Rule of ‘do unto others as ye would have them do unto you’ spoken of by the Lord Jesus during the ‘Sermon on the Mount’ (Matthew 7:12). As all men are equal and in a state of liberty, so we must treat one another with love if we wish to receive the same.

As we work out our salvation, we must walk in love.  It is love that allows us to see that we don’t have to agree with others to love them and respect their walk with the Lord.  Love allows us to realize that we see through a glass darkly so that we need not judge others (1 Corinthians 13:12-13), but focus on spending our time building them up (Ephesians 4:1-16, 29; Romans 14:19).

The finger pointing, false accusations and slander seen in today’s political scene is indicative of the lack of love amongst the citizens of America.  This is the reason the Constitution is not being followed by those in government.  The government which the Founders gave us only works if the citizens are walking in love.  The more wickedness and hatred that is seen in the citizens of the land, the more tyrannical the government will become.

“The blessed Religion revealed in the word of God will remain an eternal and awful monument to prove that the best Institution may be abused by human depravity; and that they may even, in some instances be made subservient to the vilest purposes. Should, hereafter, those incited by the lust of power and prompted by the Supineness or venality of their Constituents, overleap the known barriers of this Constitution and violate the unalienable rights of humanity: it will only serve to shew, that no compact among men (however provident in its construction and sacred in its ratification) can be pronounced everlasting an inviolable, and if I may so express myself, that no Wall of words, that no mound of parchment can be so formed as to stand against the sweeping torrent of boundless ambition on the side, aided by the sapping current of corrupted morals on the other.” – {George Washington – Draft of First Inaugural Address, April, 1789}

A truly free people will be servants one to another, walking in love, with God as their King.

Matthew 23:11 But he that is greatest among you shall be your servant.
Matthew 23:12 And whosoever shall exalt himself shall be abased; and he that shall humble himself shall be exalted.
Galatians 5:13 For, brethren, ye have been called unto liberty; only use not liberty for an occasion to the flesh, but by love serve one another.
Galatians 5:14 For all the law is fulfilled in one word, even in this; Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.

Love is the essence upon which this nation was built. Love is the Rock upon which this nation stands (Matthew 7:24-27; John 15:10; 1 John 4:8, 16; 5:3; 2 John 1:6). The Declaration of Independence was signed in Philadelphia which comes from the Greek word φιλαδελφος ‘philadelphos’ which means brotherly love. The government of the United States is founded upon this concept of love which is the path to liberty (Romans 8:21; 2 Corinthians 3:3, 17; Galatians 5:1, 6; James 1:25; 2:12).

George Washington wrote of the importance of love and walking in the footsteps of Jesus in his blessing over the 13 states after the War for Independence.

“I now make it my earnest prayer that God would have you, and the State over which you preside, in his holy protection; that he would incline the hearts of the citizens to cultivate a spirit of subordination and obedience to government, to entertain a brotherly affection and love for one another…and finally that he would most graciously be pleased to dispose us all to do justice, to love mercy, and to demean ourselves with that charity, humility, and pacific temper of mind, which were the characteristics of the Divine Author of our blessed religion, and without an humble imitation of whose example in these things, we can never hope to be a happy nation.”

John Quincy Adams also spoke of this concept in regards to the understanding which the Founders had of the natural law. The Declaration of Independence was founded upon this natural law which is grounded in the principle of loving one’s fellow man.

“When our fathers abjured the name of Britons, and ‘assumed among the nations of the earth the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and of nature’s God entitled them…They spoke of the law of nature, and in the name of nature’s God…The God in whose name they spoke had taught them, in the revelation of the Gospel, that the only way in which man can discharge his duty to Him is by loving his neighbor as himself, and doing with him as he would be done by; respecting his rights while enjoying his own, and applying all his emancipated powers of body and of mind to self-improvement and the improvement of his race.”

Love is the basis of which the government of the United States is founded upon. The Founders spoke of the American form of government as being reliant upon the ability of man to govern himself by walking in accordance with the law of God which is summed up in one word, love (Matthew 22:40).

The Constitutional Convention

The Constitutional Convention took place from May 14 to September 17, 1787 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  George Washington was chosen as the President of the convention.  55 delegates represented the various states with 39 signing the Constitution.

George Washington: President of the Constitutional Convention

Interestingly, George Washington’s name points back to the concept of a ‘shining city upon a hill.’  Washington means a people on a hill by a river, pointing to the Garden of Eden, the Mount or hill of God (Ezekiel 28:13-14) from whence sprang 4 rivers (Genesis 2:10).

Washington spoke of the Constitutional convention which he oversaw as bringing forth a government of the people.
“The mind is so formed in different persons as to contemplate the same object in different points of view. Hence originates the difference on questions of the greatest import, both human & divine. In all Institutions of the former kind, great allowances are doubtless to be made for the fallibility & imperfection of their authors. Although the agency I had in forming this system, and the high opinion I entertained of my Colleagues for their ability & integrity may have tended to warp my judgment in its favour; yet I will not pretend to say that it appears absolutely perfect to me, or that there may not be many faults which have escaped my discernment. I will only say, that, during and since the Session of the Convention, I have attentively heard and read every oral & printed information on both sides of the question that could be procured. This long & laborious investigation, in which I endeavoured as far as the frailty of nature would permit to act with candour has resulted in a fixed belief that this Constitution, is really in its formation a government of the people; that is to say, a government in which all power is derived from, and at stated periods reverts to them–and that, in its operation, it is purely, a government of Laws made & executed by the fair substitutes of the people alone.” {Draft of First Inaugural Address, April, 1789}

As the government is of ‘We the People’ the morality of ‘we the people’ is of utmost importance.

“…the foundation of our national policy will be laid in the pure and immutable principles of private morality, and the preeminence of free government be exemplified by all the attributes which can win the affections of its citizens and command the respect of the world. I dwell on this prospect with every satisfaction which an ardent love for my country can inspire, since there is no truth more thoroughly established than that there exists in the economy and course of nature an indissoluble union between virtue and happiness; between duty and advantage; between the genuine maxims of an honest and magnanimous policy and the solid rewards of public prosperity and felicity; since we ought to be no less persuaded that the propitious smiles of Heaven can never be expected on a nation that disregards the eternal rules of order and right which Heaven itself has ordained; and since the preservation of the sacred fire of liberty and the destiny of the republican model of government are justly considered, perhaps, as deeply, as finally, staked on the experiment entrusted to the hands of the American people. {George Washington’s First Inaugural Address}

George Washington spoke of the ratification of the Constitution as a miracle from Heaven.
“He was quite intensely religious, because even though he uses the word Providence, he constantly sees Providence as an active force in life, particularly in American life. I mean, every single victory in war he credits to Providence. The miracle of the Constitutional Convention he credits to Providence. The creation of the federal government and the prosperity of the early republic, he credits to Providence… I was struck at how frequently in his letters he’s referring to Providence, and it’s Providence where there’s a sense of design and purpose, which sounds to me very much like religion.” {Washington: A Life – Ron Chernow}

“It appears to me, then, little short of a miracle, that the Delegates from so many different States… should unite in forming a system of national Government, so little liable to well founded objections.” {George Washington – Letter to the Marquis de Lafayette, February 7, 1788}

“[The adoption of the Constitution] will demonstrate as visibly the finger of Providence, as any possible event in the course of human affairs can ever designate it.” {George Washington letter to Marquis de Lafayette – 5/28/1788}

“We may, with a kind of grateful and pious exultation, trace the finger of Providence through those dark and mysterious events, which first induced the States to appoint a general Convention and then led them one after another into an adoption of the system recommended by that general Convention; thereby in all human probability, laying a lasting foundation for tranquility and happiness.”  {George Washington – Letter to Jonathan Trumbull, July 20, 1788}

“No people can be bound to acknowledge and adore the invisible hand which conducts the affairs of men more than the people of the United States. Every step by which they have advanced to the character of an independent nation seems to have been distinguished by some token of providential agency.”  {George Washington – 1st Inaugural Address}

“The good dispositions which seem at present to pervade every class of people afford reason for your observation that the clouds which have long darkened our political hemisphere are now dispersing, and that America will soon feel the effects of her natural advantages. That invisible hand which has so often interposed to save our Country from impending destruction, seems in no instance to have been more remarkably excited than in that of disposing the people of this extensive Continent to adopt, in a peaceable manner, a Constitution, which if well administered, bids fair to make America a happy nation.” {George Washington  – Letter to Philip Schuyler, May 9, 1789}

As a result of the Lord’s blessing, Washington proclaimed a national day of Thanksgiving.
“WHEREAS it is the duty of all nations to acknowledge the providence of Almighty God, to obey His will, to be grateful for His benefits, and humbly to implore His protection and favour; and Whereas both Houses of Congress have, by their joint committee, requested me “to recommend to the people of the United States a DAY OF PUBLICK THANSGIVING and PRAYER, to be observed by acknowledging with grateful hearts the many and signal favors of Almighty God, especially by affording them an opportunity peaceably to establish a form of government for their safety and happiness: NOW THEREFORE, I do recommend and assign THURSDAY, the TWENTY-SIXTH DAY of NOVEMBER next, to be devoted by the people of these States to the service of that great and glorious Being who is the beneficent author of all the good that was, that is, or that will be; that we may then all unite in rendering unto Him our sincere and humble thanks for His kind care and protection of the people of his country previous to their becoming a nation; for the signal and manifold mercies and the favorable interpositions of His providence in the course and conclusion of the late war; for the great degree of tranquility, union, and plenty which we have since enjoyed; — for the peaceable and rational manner in which we have been enable to establish Constitutions of government for our safety and happiness, and particularly the national one now lately instituted; — for the civil and religious liberty with which we are blessed, and the means we have of acquiring and diffusing useful knowledge; — and, in general, for all the great and various favours which He has been pleased to confer upon us. And also, that we may then unite in most humbly offering our prayers and supplications to the great Lord and Ruler of Nations and beseech Him to pardon our national and other transgressions; — to enable us all, whether in publick or private stations, to perform our several and relative duties properly and punctually; to render our National Government a blessing to all the people by constantly being a Government of wife, just, and constitutional laws, discreetly and faithfully executed and obeyed; to protect and guide all sovereigns and nations (especially such as have shews kindness unto us); and to bless them with good governments, peace, and concord; to promote the knowledge and practice of true religion and virtue, and the increase of science among them and us; and, generally to grant unto all mankind such a degree of temporal prosperity as he alone knows to be best. GIVEN under my hand, at the city of New-York, the third day of October, in the year of our Lord, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-nine.” {George Washington – First Thanksgiving Proclamation, October 3, 1789

Washington wasn’t the only man who attended the convention who saw the Hand of YHWH guiding the events.

James Madison wrote in a letter to Thomas Jefferson that the agreement at the Constitutional convention was no less than a miracle.

“The whole of them together formed a task more difficult than can be well concieved by those who were not concerned in the execution of it. Adding to these considerations the natural diversity of human opinions on all new and complicated subjects, it is impossible to consider the degree of concord which ultimately prevailed as less than a miracle.” {James Madison to Thomas Jefferson 10/24/1787}

Later Madison wrote:
“The real wonder is that so many difficulties should have been surmounted [in the federal convention], and surmounted with a unanimity almost as unprecedented as it must have been unexpected. It is impossible for any man of candor to reflect on this circumstance without partaking of the astonishment. It is impossible for the man of pious reflection not to perceive in it a finger of that Almighty hand which has been so frequently and signally extended to our relief in the critical stages of the revolution.” {The Federalist No. 37 – 1/11/1788}

Charles Pinckney

Charles Pinckney declared:

“When the great work was done and published, I was … struck with amazement. Nothing less than that superintending hand of Providence, that so miraculously carried us through the war, … could have brought it about so complete, upon the whole.”  {Essays on the Constitution, 1892, pg 412}

Alexander Hamilton

Alexander Hamilton also spoke of the Divine guidance of the Constitutional Convention:

“The science of government is not easily understood. Cato will admit, I presume, that men of good education and deep reflection, only, are judges of the form of a government; whether it is constituted on such principles as will restrain arbitrary power, on the one hand, and equal to the exclusion of corruption and the destruction of licentiousness on the other; whether the New Constitution, if adopted, will prove adequate to such desirable ends, time, the mother of events, will show. For my own part, I sincerely esteem it a system, which, without the finger of God, never could have been suggested and agreed upon by such a diversity of interests {Alexander Hamilton – Popular Basis of Political Authority – 10/17/1787}

Daniel Webster reiterated these thoughts.
“Hold on, my friends, to the Constitution and to the Republic for which it stands. Miracles do not cluster, and what has happened once in 6000 years, may not happen again. Hold on to the Constitution, for if the American Constitution should fail, there will be anarchy throughout the world.” {Daniel Webster – 1805 address in Concord, Massachusetts}

“I regard the Constitution as the work of the purest patriots and wisest statesmen that ever existed, aided by the smiles of a benignant, gracious Providence…it almost appears a Divine interposition in our behalf.” {Daniel Webster}

Warren Harding

In his Inaugural Address, Warren Harding spoke of ‘divine inspiration’ of the Founders.
“Standing in this presence, mindful of the solemnity of this occasion, feeling the emotions which no one may know until he senses the great weight of responsibility for himself, I must utter my belief in the divine inspiration of the founding fathers. Surely there must have been God’s intent in the making of this new-world Republic. Ours is an organic law which had but one ambiguity, and we saw that effaced in a baptism of sacrifice and blood, with union maintained, the Nation supreme, and its concord inspiring. We have seen the world rivet its hopeful gaze on the great truths on which the founders wrought. We have seen civil, human, and religious liberty verified and glorified. In the beginning the Old World scoffed at our experiment; today our foundations of political and social belief stand unshaken, a precious inheritance to ourselves, an inspiring example of freedom and civilization to all mankind. Let us express renewed and strengthened devotion, in grateful reverence for the immortal beginning, and utter our confidence in the supreme fulfillment”

James Madison: “Father of the Constitution & Bill of Rights”

James Madison

James Madison is known as the Father of the Constitution, and the Father of the Bill of Rights.  Madison, along with Alexander called for the constitutional convention.  Madison was instrumental in getting George Washington to attend, who then became the President of the convention.

William Pierce, a delegate from Georgia, wrote: “Mr. Maddison is a character who has long been in public life; and what is very remarkable every Person seems to acknowledge his greatness. He blends together the profound politician, with the Scholar. In the management of every great question he evidently took the lead in the Convention, and tho’ he cannot be called an Orator, he is a most agreeable, eloquent and convincing Speaker. From a spirit of industry and application which he possesses in a most eminent degree, he always comes forward the best informed Man of any point in debate … Mr. Maddison is about 37 years of age, a Gentleman of great modesty, — with a remarkable sweet temper.”

James Madison was one of the primary authors of “The Federalist Papers” which helped to ratify the Constitution. As a member of Congress, he also authored nine of the ten accepted articles in the Bill of Rights, excluding the first.

The Bible and Biblical principles were important in the framing of the Constitution. In particular, the framers started with a Biblical view of human nature. James Madison argued in Federalist #51 that government must be based upon a realistic view of human nature.

“But what is government itself but the greatest of all reflections on human nature? If men were angels, no government would be necessary. If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on government would be necessary. In framing a government which is to be administered by men over men, the great difficulty lies in this: you must first enable the government to control the governed; and in the next place oblige it to control itself.” {James Madison Federalist Papers #51}

The Constitution developed by the convention in Philadelphia had to be ratified. This would be done by special conventions called in each state to decide that sole question of ratification. Madison was a leader in the ratification effort. He, Alexander Hamilton and John Jay wrote the Federalist Papers, a series of 85 newspaper articles published in New York to explain how the proposed Constitution would work, mainly by responding to criticisms from anti-federalists.

The historian Clinton Rossiter called the Federalist Papers “the most important work in political science that ever has been written, or is likely ever to be written, in the United States.

Federalism comes from foedus, Latin for covenant. “The tribes of Israel shared a covenant that made them a nation. American federalism originated at least in part in the dissenting Protestants’ familiarity with the Bible.”  {The Origins of American Constitutionalism – Donald Lutz pg 43}

The historian Garry Wills wrote:

“Madison’s claim on our admiration does not rest on a perfect consistency, any more than it rests on his presidency. He has other virtues…. As a framer and defender of the Constitution he had no peer…. The finest part of Madison’s performance as president was his concern for the preserving of the Constitution…. No man could do everything for the country – not even Washington. Madison did more than most, and did some things better than any. That was quite enough.” {James Madison – Gary Wills pg 164}

George F. Will once wrote that if we truly believed that the pen is mightier than the sword, our nation’s capital would have been called “Madison, D.C.”, instead of Washington, D.C

“We have staked the whole future of our new nation, not upon the power of government; far from it. We have staked the future of all our political constitutions upon the capacity of each of ourselves to govern ourselves according to the moral principles of the Ten Commandments.” {James Madison}

Madison said that the Virginia Declaration of Rights is the basis of government.

“…the Declaration of those rights which pertain to the good people of Virginia, as the basis and foundation of government.” {James Madison, Memorial and Remonstrance against Religious Assessments 6/20/1785}

What is this foundation? Love.

“It is the mutual duty of all to practice Christian forbearance, love, and charity toward each other.”   {The Proceedings of the Convention of Delegates, Held at the Capitol in the City of Williamsburg, in the Colony of Virginia, on Monday the 6th of May, 1776}

It is the ability of man to ‘self govern’ himself according to Christian love which is the foundation of a Republic.

“The essense of our now weakened Christianity is self-discipline, as preached and practised by Christ Jesus.  Those who can thus govern themselves have little need of managerial government.  So, when America gloried in being a Christian people, it was possible to replace the domination of the British monarchy by a system in which the greater part of all governmental activities were localized.  The ‘determination’, in Madison’s memorable words, was ‘to rest all our political experiments on the capacity of mankind for self government’. {The Christian History of the Constitution of the United States of America – Verna Hall pg IX}

The Christian History of the Constitution of the United States of America – Verna Hall pg 27 excerpts from The Puritans and their Principles – Edwin Hall

“It is remarkable how men of comprehensive views, and free from sectarian bias, have agreed with regard to THE REPUBLICANISM OF CHRISTIANITY. ‘Christianity,’ says Montesquieu, ‘is a strange to despotic power.’  ‘The religion,’ says De Tocqueville, ‘which declares that all are equal in the sight of God, will not refuse to acknolwedge that all citizens are equal in the eye of the law.  Religion is the companion of liberty in all its battles and all its conflicts; the cradle of its infancy and the divine source of its claims.’  The friends of libert in France are accustomed to speak in enthusiastic commendation of the REPUBLICANISM of the Scriptures.’  The Abbe’ de la Mennais, acknowledged as one of the most powerful minds in Europe, little as he regards Christianity as a revelation from God, familiarly speaks of its Author as ‘THE GREAT REPUBLICAN.’  Our own De Witt Clinton said, ‘Christianity, in its essence, its doctrines, and its forms, is republican.’

“The tendency of the true Gospel principles is to bring the most absolute despotism under the limits of law; to imbue limited monarchies more and more with the spirit of popular institutions; to prepare the people to govern themselves; and finally to establish everywhere the spirit and the reality, if not the very forms of a republic.

“Let us turn once more to the republican features of the churches organized by the Apostles.  These churches had officers, which were to be regarded and observed, in their proper sphere, as much as the officers of any other republic.  But the manner of their ruling was to to be as ‘Lords over God’s heritage’; ‘Whosoever will be chief among you’, said the Saviour, ‘let him be your servant.’

“The Apostles themselves gave several striking illustrations of their regard for popular rights.  The first public act of the Church, after our Lord’s ascension, was the choice of an Apostle in the place of Judas.  Peter stands up in the midst of the disciples – the number of names together was about on hundred and twenty – and proposes the matter.  The election is made by the body of the Church…

“The accurate historian Mosheim thus states the conclusions to which his own mind came after a most thorough investigation.  ‘In these primitive times,…the highest authority was in the people, or the whole body of Christians; for even the Apostles themselves inculcated by their example, that nothing of moment was to be done or determined but with the knowledge and consent of the brotherhood.’…’The people did everything that is proper for those in whom the supreme power of the community is vested.’ {The Christian History of the Constitution of the United States of America – Verna M. Hall pg 251}

“…the form of civil government here established was simply an extension to the domain of secular affairs of the principles already adopted in religious matters – the mutual covenant and agreement of those associated, as under God the ultimate law.”

“The highest glory of the American Revolution, said John Quincy Adams, was this: it connected, in one indissoluble bond, the principles of civil government with the principles of Christianity…” {The Pulpit of the American Revolution – J. Wingate Thornton}

Despite the title of Father of the Constitution & Bill of Rights, Madison denied being the Father of the Constitution as it was the work of a body of men.

Years later, when called the “Father of the Constitution,” Madison said that the document was not ‘the off-spring of a single brain,’ but ‘the work of many heads and many hands.’

“There were fifty-five individuals directly involved in framing the Constitution at the Constitutional Convention, and an additional ninety in the first federal Congress that framed the First Amendment and Bill of Rights. Allowing for the overlap of nineteen individuals who were both at the Constitutional Convention and a part of the first Congress, there were one hundred and twenty-six individual participants in the framing of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights.” {James Madison and Religion in Public – David Barton}

It is interesting to note that the number 126 is equivalent to the Hebrew word מאלהים ‘maylohim’ which means ‘from God.’

“…we have all been encouraged to feel in the guardianship and guidance of that Almighty Being whose power regulates the destiny of nations, whose blessings have been so conspicuously dispensed to this rising Republic, and to whom we are bound to address our devout gratitude for the past, as well as our fervent supplications and best hopes for the future.” {James Madison – First Inaugural Address}

The Constitution

Following is a copy of the Constitution.  A few portions have lines through them. These were in the Constitution as originally written, but subsequent amendments have overruled them, so they are no longer applicable.

We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

Article I

Section 1

All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

Section 2

1: The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.

2: No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

3: Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.

4: When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.5: The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.Section 31: The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.

2: Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.

3: No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

4: The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.

5: The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.

6: The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.

7: Judgment in Cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.

Section 4

1: The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of chusing Senators.

2: The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.

Section 5

1: Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.

2: Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.

3: Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.

4: Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

Section 6

1: The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.

2: No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been encreased during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office.

Section 7

1: All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills.

2: Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States; If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.

3: Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

Section 8

1: The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

2: To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;

3: To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes;

4: To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;

5: To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;

6: To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States;

7: To establish Post Offices and post Roads;

8: To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;

9: To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;

10: To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations;

11: To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;

12: To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;

13: To provide and maintain a Navy;

14: To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces;

15: To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;

16: To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

17: To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings;–And

18: To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.

Section 9

1: The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year One Thousand Eight Hundred and Eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.

2: The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.

3: No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.

4: No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or Enumeration herein before directed to be taken.

5: No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State.

6: No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another: nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.

7: No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time.

8: No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.

Section 10

1: No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.

2: No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it’s inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Controul of the Congress.

3: No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.

Article II

Section 1

1: The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows

2: Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.

3: The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediatelly chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President.

4: The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.

5: No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.

6: In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.

7: The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be encreased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.

8: Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:–“I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”

Section 2

1: The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.

2: He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

3: The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.

Section 3

He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States.

Section 4

The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.

Article III

Section 1

The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.

Section 2

1: The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority;–to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls;–to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;–to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party;–to Controversies between two or more States;–between a State and Citizens of another State; –between Citizens of different States, –between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.

2: In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.

3: The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.

Section 3

1: Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.

2: The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted.

Article IV

Section 1

Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceeding of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.

Section 2

1: The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.

2: A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.

3: No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.

Section 3

1: New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.

2: The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.

Section 4

The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic Violence.

Article V

The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.

Article VI

1: All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

2: This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.

3: The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.

Article VII

The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.

Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the Independence of the United States of America the Twelfth.

In witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names,

George Washington – President and deputy from Virginia

New Hampshire – John Langdon, Nicholas Gilman

Massachusetts – Nathaniel Gorham, Rufus King

Connecticut – William Samuel Johnson, Roger Sherman

New York – Alexander Hamilton

New Jersey – William Livingston, David Brearley, William Paterson, Jonathan Dayton

Pennsylvania – Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Mifflin, Robert Morris, George Clymer, Thomas Fitzsimons, Jared Ingersoll, James Wilson, Gouvernour Morris

Delaware – George Read, Gunning Bedford Jr., John Dickinson, Richard Bassett, Jacob Broom

Maryland – James McHenry, Daniel of St Thomas Jenifer, Daniel Carroll

Virginia – John Blair, James Madison Jr.

North Carolina – William Blount, Richard Dobbs Spaight, Hugh Williamson

South Carolina – John Rutledge, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Charles Pinckney, Pierce Butler

Georgia – William Few, Abraham Baldwin

Attest: William Jackson, Secretary

Amendment I

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

Amendment II

A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.

Amendment III

No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

Amendment IV

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

Amendment V

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

Amendment VI

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.

Amendment VII

In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

Amendment VIII

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

Amendment IX

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

Amendment X

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

Amendment XI

The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.

Amendment XII

The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate;–The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted;–The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. –The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.

Amendment XIII

Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
Amendment XIV

1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

2: Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

3: No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.

4: The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.

5: The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

Amendment XV

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Amendment XVI

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.

Amendment XVII

1: The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.

2: When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

3: This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.

Amendment XVIII

1: After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.

2: The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

3: This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

Amendment XIX

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Amendment XX

1: The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.

2: The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

3: If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.

4: The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.

5: Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of this article.

6: This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission.

Amendment XXI

1: The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.

2: The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.

3: This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

Amendment XXII

1: No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once. But this article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President when this article was proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.

2: This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several states within seven years from the date of its submission to the states by the Congress.

Amendment XXIII

1: The District constituting the seat of government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct: A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a state, but in no event more than the least populous state; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the states, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a state; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.

2: The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Amendment XXIV

1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representatives in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Amendment XXV

1: In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

2: Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

3: Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.

4: Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.

Amendment XXVI

1: The right of citizens of the United States, who are 18 years of age or older, to vote, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state on account of age.

2: The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Amendment XXVII

No law varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives shall take effect until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.

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Due to parts of this study being a part of an upcoming series of books called the Presidents Code, I have to affix the following copyright notice:

The Presidents Code

Copyright © 2012-2013 by Levi Madison. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher.

Biblical quotations are taken from The Holy Bible, King James Version (KJV).

Draft version: 2012-13