Biblical Calendar

I have spent a lot of time studying theories about the Biblical calendar and the numerous interpretations thereof.  In studying this subject there is one overwhelming conclusion that these theories lead to…confusion.  As God is not the author of confusion (1 Corinthians 14:33), I decided that after spending scores of hours studying men’s interpretations that perhaps the wise thing to do would be to go to the Bible alone, as the Lord is the author of this Book (2 Timothy 3:15-17) and as a result the confusion in regards to the calendar should dissipate with a reliance therein.  This I have found to be true as the calendar which one finds in the pages of the Scriptures is very simple and is only confusing when one begins to compare it with other interpretations out there which contradict.  It is man who has brought confusion to the calendar issue, not the Almighty.

In order to get to the purest interpretation of the Biblical calendar possible, I decided to imagine myself as waking up on a deserted island with no previous knowledge of the calendar.  Then I imagined an angel showing up with the Bible and proclaiming that everything I needed to walk according to God’s will would be found in these pages.  No sermons or teachings of others, no 500 page calendar studies, no calendars to reference, only the Bible.  Through the Bible alone can one be able to know when the day starts?  Or the week, month or year?  I believe the answer to that is yes.

I know that there will be those that disagree about my interpretations of the day, week, month and year but I ask those who disagree to examine their views in light of the imagined scenario of being on a deserted island with only a Bible.   Would the opposing interpretation be plausible in that situation?  I’m open to changing if I’m wrong so please let me know if you think I’m in error but please give Biblical evidence.

The Biblical Calendar is based upon the sun, moon and stars (Genesis 1:14) and is controlled by the Almighty (Daniel 2:21). YHWH appoints the ordinances of heaven (Jeremiah 31:35-36) not man, man can only THINK to change His calendar (Daniel 7:25). Time is cyclical which is seen when tracing back the Hebrew words that deal with time and the movement of the heavenly bodies.

Gen 1:14 And God said, Let luminaries be in the expanse of the heavens, to divide between the day and the night. And let them be for signs and for seasons, and for days and years.

Following is a short simplified version of the Biblical calendar:

The day begins at evening (Genesis 1:5), the work day starts at morning (Psalm 104:23). Evening and morning were the first day, the second day commenced when evening came a second time (Genesis 1:5, 8, 13, 19, 23, 31) thus displaying the cycle.  Both periods are based upon the sun’s position on the horizon, East in the morning and West in the evening.  The Hebrew word for day is יום ‘yom’ which comes from the root ים ‘yam’ which means the sea.  The Mediterrean sea is West (Joshua 15:12; Ezekiel 47:20) and the sun sets in the West (Joshua 1:4; 23:4; Isaiah 45:6).   Further displaying the beginning of the day at evening is seen in regards to Yom Kippur (Leviticus 23:32) and the sabbath (Nehemiah 13:19).

The week begins “Saturday” evening and continues for seven days in a continuous cycle going back to the beginning of creation.  The week is not based upon the movements of the heavenly bodies according to Genesis 1:14.  The word for week comes from the Hebrew word for seven which also means oath (שבע ‘sheva’).  God’s Word is also His oath (Psalm 105:42; Luke 1:72-73).  His Word/Oath went forth on day 1 of creation, thus starting the 7 day cycle.

The month begins at the dark moon (Psalm 81:3; Proverbs 7:20; Psalm 72:7).  The first day of the month starts the evening following the morning that the moon is no longer visible in the Eastern sky.  This is how David could declare tomorrow (מחר ‘machar’ that evening) is the new moon (1 Samuel 20:5, 18).  The waxing crescent can be used as a “bookend” and is seen 2-3 days later (1 Samuel 20:5, 18-19, 27).

The year begins after the sun makes its complete circuit (תקופה ‘tequfah’/תשובה ‘teshubah’), rising directly East (Psalm 19:4-6; 75:6; Hosea 6:3; Ecclesiastes 1:5-6; Exodus 34:22; 23:16; 2 Samuel 11:1; 1 Kings 20:22, 26; 2 Chronicles 36:10; 24:23).  The next new moon begins the year upon which the feasts follow (Psalm 104:19).

 

http://www.umass.edu/sunwheel/pages/design.html

Gen 1:14 And God said, Let luminaries be in the expanse of the heavens, to divide between the day and the night. And let them be for signs and for seasons, and for days and years.

for signs-constellations Psa 19:1

(oth-H225 (in the sense of appearing); a signal (literally or figuratively), as a flag, beacon, monument, omen, prodigy, evidence, etc.: – mark, miracle, (en-) sign, token.,

and for seasons—moon, Psa 104:19

Psa 104:19 He made the moon for seasons {moedim}; the sun knows its going down.

mô‛êd / mô‛êd / mô‛âdâh

BDB Definition:

1) appointed place, appointed time, meeting

1a) appointed time

1a1) appointed time (general)

1a2) sacred season, set feast, appointed season

and for days–sun,

and years–stars: procession of equinoxes

TARGUM

And the Lord said, Let there be lights in the expanse of the heavens, to distinguish between the day and the night; and let them be for signs and for festival times, and for the numbering by them the account of days, and for the sanctifying of the beginning of months, and the beginning of years, the passing away of months, and the passing away of years, the revolutions of the sun, the birth of the moon, and the revolvings (of seasons).

[JERUSALEM. And let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for the sanctifying by them of the beginning of months and years.]

Another Aramaic Targum, Pseudo-Jonathan, says: God said, “Let there be lights in the firmament of the heavens to separate the day from the night, and let them serve as signs and as festival times, and for counting the reckoning of days, and for sanctifying the beginnings of months and the beginnings of years, the intercalations of months and the intercalations of years, the solstices, the new moon, and the cycles (of the sun).”

[The Aramaic Bible, (translated by Michael Maher)]

YHWH alone is in control of the calendar. Not man. The calendar is not affected by his crescent moon sightings or ripe barley searches.

Dan 2:21 And He changes* the times** and the seasons***; He causes kings to pass away, and sets up kings; He gives wisdom to the wise, and knowledge to those who know understanding.

Changes*

H8133

שׁנא (Aramaic)

shenâ’

BDB Definition:

1) to change, be altered, be changed

This is related to the Hebrew word שנה

This word is directly related to the calendar and seasons

Dan 2:21 And He changes* the times** and the seasons***; He causes kings to pass away, and sets up kings; He gives wisdom to the wise, and knowledge to those who know understanding.

the times**

H5732

עדּן (Aramaic)

‛iddân

from

H5708

עד

‛êd

This is the root word for mo’ed (appointed times/seasons)

Dan 2:21 And He changes* the times** and the seasons***; He causes kings to pass away, and sets up kings; He gives wisdom to the wise, and knowledge to those who know understanding.

Seasons***

What does the adversary seek to do?

Dan 7:25 And he shall speak words against the Most High, and he shall wear out the saints of the Most High. And he intends to change times and law. And they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and one half time.

Beginning of the year

The year begins in the month of Nisan which occurs in the Spring at the tekufah or the turn of the year when the sun has completed its orbit.

YHWH is the one who is in control of the tekufah and the movement of the constellations.

Job 38:32 Can you bring out the constellations in their season (עת êth – time) or can you guide the Bear (Heb. ayish – Bear, Arcturus) with its sons?

Job 38:33 Do you know the limits (chuqqah – laws) of the heavens; can you establish their rulership on the earth?

The Spring tekufah occrus when the sun has completed its cycle through the constellations.

Exo 12:1 And the LORD spake unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying,

Exo 12:2 This month shall be unto you the beginning of months: it shall be the first month of the year to you.

Deu 16:1 Observe {H8104 shâmar} the month of Abib, and keep the passover unto the LORD thy God: for in the month of Abib the LORD thy God brought thee forth out of Egypt by night.

Following is a short summation on how to find the Biblical new year based only on the Scriptures:

To find out when to begin the new year one need only go to the Scriptures.  Genesis 1:14 declares that the heavenly bodies are the basis for finding the new year.  The Hebrew word for year (שנה ‘shanah’) literally means to repeat or do something again.  This means that the year begins when the heavenly bodies repeat their cycle.  Scripture declares Spring as the beginning of the year (Exodus 12:2) with the spring ‘equinox’ (תקופה ‘tequfah’/תשובה ‘teshubah’) as the point at which the heavenly bodies have completed their cycle.  The ‘equinox’ is found when the sun rises exactly East, I use the term ‘equinox’ as this is the familiar English term but in reality the תקופה ‘tequfah’ doesn’t necessarily mean “equal night” as the equinox does, but merely the rising of the sun on the eastern horizon.  This cycle of the sun rising exactly East each year is the circuit or תקופה ‘tequfah’ (Psalm 19:6) which completes the year.  The moon will then follow which will begin the counting of days of the first month for the feasts (Psalm 104:19).

Exodus 34:22 declares that Sukkot must occur after the autumnal equinox (תקופה ‘tequfah’).  This can only be guaranteed each year if one waits for the spring equinox/tequfah to occur and then start the year on the next new moon.  If one starts the year with a new moon that occurs in the winter before the equinox there will be some years in which Sukkot will occur during the summer before the Fall equinox, thus departing from the requirements of Scripture.  Exodus 23:16 says that Sukkot occurs at the “end” of the year.  The word for “end” in this verse in Hebrew is יצא ‘yatsa’ which is used in Psalm 19:5 in reference to the sun rising, or “coming out” of his chamber.  Psalm 19:6 declares the sun’s “going forth” (מוצה ‘motsa’) is from the “end” of heaven and his circuit (תקופה ‘tequfah’) unto the ends of it.  This connects the “end” yet again to the equinox/tequfah.

מוצה ‘motsa’ comes forth from the word יצא ‘yatsa’ and has the same meaning of going out or coming out and is used in various applications, but specifically in reference to the rising of the sun in the East. מוצה ‘motsa’ is translated as East in Psalm 75:6 and links to the Spring season in Job 38:27 as it is translated as the “bud” of the tender herb springing forth.  On a deeper level, the ‘advents’ of the Messiah are spoken of as מוצה ‘motsa’ in Hosea 6:3.  His “going forth” (מוצה ‘motsa’) is prepared as the morning, again connecting the rising of the sun in the East.  He comes as the latter rain which occurs during the time of the spring equinox and former rain which comes during the time of the fall equinox.

The word for ‘equinox’ in Hebrew is תקופה ‘tequfah’ which has the following pictograph meaning.  The cross (ת) reveals (ה) the sun on the horizon (קוף).  The letter ק ‘qof’ spelled קוף in Hebrew is pictographially displayed as the sun rising on the horizon.  So then the word תקופה ‘tequfah’ has embedded within itself the point of the equinox.  It is at the cross of the horizon which is exactly East.  As the sun moves through its course in the sky it will rise directly East at the spring and fall equinoxes, making a cross in the sky each year.

tequfah cross

Yet another witness to the spring equinox being the starting point of the year is seen in 2 Samuel 11:1; 1 Kings 20:22, 26; 2 Chronicles 36:10; 24:23.  In 2 Samuel 11:1; 1 Kings 20:22, 26; 2 Chronicles 36:10 the Scriptures speak of the year’s return/expiration.  This word is תשובה ‘teshubah’ which means to return to the beginning.  The תשובה ‘teshubah’ marks the time in which the sun has made its circuit around the earth beginning again at Spring.  It was the time in which nations would go to war in olden days.  This is why the first month of the year came to be called Nisan as this word literally speaks of banners raised for war.  March, which comes from Mars the ‘god’ of war, comes from this same concept.  In 2 Chronicles 24:23 the Scriptures speak of this same time period as the תקופה ‘tequfah.’  So in Scripture, the תקופה ‘tequfah’ and תשובה ‘teshubah’ occur at the same time of year, when the sun makes its full revolution through the sky rising due East at the Spring equinox/tequfah.

The pictograph meaning of תשובה ‘teshubah’ is yet another witness to the Spring equinox as well.  The letters mean the cross (ת) reveals (ה) the path to the house (שוב).  Job 38:20 speaks of the sun/light in its courses as moving in a path to his house.  This links to Psalm 19 which speaks of the sun as a bridegroom in his chamber (חפה ‘chuppah’).  This tequfah cross connection is seen further in the Hebrew word תא ‘ta’ which as the meaning of a mark, point, chamber or boundary.  The Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible defines this word as:

The pictograph ת is a picture of two crossed sticks representing a mark. A mark identifies locations used to mark out a location. Two crossed sticks in the shape of cross were used to hang the family standard or flag.

So again the ‘tequfah cross’ is seen.  The flag or banner points to Nisan.  The chamber connects to Psalm 19:6 and Job 38:20 with the tequfah being the point of a mark of reference and the boundary as a place separation.

In another equinox/tequfah time connection is the Hebrew word for time which is עת ‘et.’ Pictographically עת ‘et’ means to see ע the cross ת.

Jewishencyclopedia.com

Tekufot (Hebrew: תקופות, singular: tekufa) are the four seasons of the year recognized by the Talmudical writers. The four tekufot are:

1. Tekufat Nisan, the vernal equinox (March 21), when the sun enters Aries; this is the beginning of spring, or “eit hazera” (seed-time), when day and night are equal.

2. Tekufat Tammuz, the summer solstice (June 21), when the sun enters Cancer; this is the summer season, or “et ha-katsir” (harvest-time), when the day is the longest in the year.

3. Tekufat Tishrei, the autumnal equinox (Sept. 23), when the sun enters Libra, and autumn, or “et ha-hatsir” (vintage-time), begins, and when the day again equals the night.

4. Tekufat Tevet, the winter solstice (Dec. 22), when the sun enters Capricornus; this is the beginning of winter, or “et ha-ḥoref” (stripping-time), when the night is the longest during the year.

Josephus Antiquities of the Jews 3.10.5

5. In the month of Xanthicus, which is by us called Nisan, and is the beginning of our year, on the fourteenth day of the lunar month, when the sun is in Aries, (for in this month it was that we were delivered from bondage under the Egyptians,)

Psa 19:6 his (the sun) going forth from the end of the heavens, and his orbit (tekufah) to their ends; and nothing is hidden from his heat.

Exo 34:22 And you shall observe a Feast of Weeks for yourself, the firstfruits of the harvest of wheat; also the Feast of Ingathering at the turn (tekufah) of the year.

2Ch 24:23 And it happened, at the turn (tekufah) of the year, that the army of Syria came up against him; and they came into Judah and Jerusalem and destroyed all the leaders of the people from among the people; and they sent all their plunder to the king of Damascus.

Job 38:18 Have you comprehended the breadth of the earth? Declare, if you know it all!

Job 38:19 Where is this, the way light dwells; and where is the place of darkness,

Job 38:20 that you should take it to its boundary, and that you should perceive the paths to its house?

John Gill commentary

Job 38:20 That thou shouldest take it to the bound thereof,…. Either darkness, or rather the light; take it as it were by the hand, and guide and direct its course to its utmost bound. This only the Lord can do and does: he has set a tabernacle for the sun, which goes forth at his command as a strong man to run a race; whose going forth is from the end of the heavens, and his circuit unto the ends of it: in which his course is so steered and directed by the Lord, that he never misses his way or errs from it; but keeps his path exactly, as well as knows its rising and setting, its utmost bounds;

and that thou shouldest know the paths to the house thereof? from whence it sets out, and whither it returns; see Psa_19:4. And so the light and darkness of prosperity and adversity, as well as natural light and darkness, are of God, at his disposal, and bounded by him, and therefore his will should be submitted to; which is the doctrine the Lord would teach Job by all this.

Should the Tekufah (equinox) of Tammuz extend till after the Succoth Festival, or the Tekufah(equinox) of Tebeth till the sixteenth of Nisan, the year would be intercalated, so that the festivals might fall in their due seasons, viz., Passover in Spring, Succoth in Autumn.(Sanh 11b)

Berakoth 59b

Our Rabbis taught: He who sees the sun at its turning point,3 the moon in its power,4 the planets in their orbits,5 and the signs of the zodiac in their orderly progress,6 should say: Blessed be He who has wrought the work of creation. And when [does this happen]?7 — Abaye said: Every twenty-eight years when the cycle8 begins again and the Nisan [Spring] equinox falls in Saturn on the evening of Tuesday,9 going into Wednesday.

3)# In its apparent motion in the ecliptic, the sun has four ‘turning points’ which mark the beginnings of the four respective seasons. These points are generically referred to as the tekufoth (sing. tekufah). They are: the two equinoctial points when the sun crosses the equator at the beginning of spring and autumn respectively, and ‘turns’ from one side of the equator to the other; and the two solstices, when the sun is at its maximum distance, or declination, from the equator, at one or other side of it, at the beginning of summer and winter respectively, and instead of progressively increasing its declination it ‘turns’ to decrease it progressively. (It may be mentioned that the term ‘tekufah’ is also used not only for the beginning of a season but for the whole of the season itself.)

4)As the sun and moon were created to rule the day and night respectively (Gen. I, 16), they are necessarily endowed with the attribute of power (cf. Sabbath Liturgy [H] ). In this passage, however, ‘the moon in its power’ may have a special significance, because at the Nisan, or spring equinox, the spring tides are greatest, owing to the combined action of the sun and the moon in conjunction, or new moon. The moon in its power to cause tides (a fact known to Pliny and Aristotle, and referred to by Maimonides (Guide II, 10), although never directly mentioned in the Talmud), is therefore best seen at this time.

6) The vernal or autumnal equinox is not a fixed point in relation to the signs of the zodiac, but keeps on changing its position to the extent of 50.1″. (50.1 seconds of arc) per year. This movement which is called ‘precession of the equinoxes’ is due to the continual shifting of the point of intersection of the ecliptic with the equator, but was believed by the ancients to be due to the progressive movement of the signs of the zodiac. As the result of precession, the equinoctial point which 2,000 years ago was the beginning of the sign Ram (first point of Aries) has since shifted 30″ to the sign Pisces, although it is still spoken of as the first point of Aries.

Works of Philo

ON THE LIFE OF MOSES, II – Part 4*

*Yonge’s title, A Treatise on the Life of Moses, that is to say, On the Theology and Prophetic Office of Moses, Book II.

(222) Moses puts down the beginning of the vernal equinox as the first month of the year

THE SPECIAL LAWS, I – Part 3*

*Yonge’s title, A Treatise on the Special Laws, Which Are Referred to Three Articles of the Decalogue, Namely the Third, Fourth, and Fifth; About Oaths, and the Reverence Due to Them; About the Holy Sabbath; About the Honour To Be Paid to Parents

THE FIFTH FESTIVAL

XXVIII.

The vernal equinox is an imitation and representation of that beginning in accordance with which this world was created. Accordingly, every year, God reminds men of the creation of the world, and with this view puts forward the spring, in which season all plants flourish and bloom; (152) for which reason this is very correctly set down in the law as the first month, since, in a manner, it may be said to be an impression of the first beginning of all, being stamped by it as by an archetypal Seal.

Philo interprets the Equinox as the time of equal night and day

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ON GENESIS, III – Part 1

(3)Water is divided into sea, rivers, and lakes; and the air into the two equinoxes, the vernal and the autumnal; and they may be taken as one, for they have an equal proportion of day and night, and accordingly the equinoxes are neither hot nor cold. Add to these the changes of summer and winter, for the sun is borne through those three circles into the seasons of summer, winter, and the equinoxes.

Extracts from the Canons of Anatolius on the Paschal Festival

But this segment they generally call the first dodecatomorium, and the equinox, and the beginning of the month, and the head of the cycle, and the head of the planetary course. But that segment, and the last dodecatemorium, and the end of the planetary revolution. Hence, also, those that place the first month in it, and that fix the fourteenth of the month by it, commit, as we think, no little and no common blunder. (16) But neither is this our opinion only, but it was also known to the Jews anciently, and before Christ, and was chiefly observed by them, as we may learn from Philo, Josephus, and Musaeus, and not only from these, but also from those still more ancient, i.e., the two Agathobuli, commonly called the masters, and of Aristobulus, that most distinguished scholar, who was one of the seventy that translated the holy Scriptures from the Hebrew for Ptolemy Philadelphus, and his father, and dedicated his exposition of the law of Moses to the same kings. (17) These, when they resolve inquiries on Exodus, say that all ought to sacrifice the Passover alike after the vernal equinox, in the middle of the first month.But this is found to be when the sun passes through the first segment of the solar, or, as some call it, the zodiac circle. But this Aristobulus also adds, it was requisite that not only the sun should have passed the equinoctial segment for the feast of the Passover, but the moon also. But that the first month of the Hebrews must occur after the equinox may be gathered also from the book of Enoch.”

“’Peter, the Bishop of Alexandria, mentions that the Jews had kept the Passover properly up to the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 C.E. But after the destruction of the city they ‘err in reckoning the beginning of the month, which is first amongst the months of the year, on the fourteenth day of which, being accurately observed, AFTER the equinox, the ancients celebrated the Passover according to the Divine Command: whereas the men of the present day now celebrate it BEFORE the equinox, and that altogether through negligence and error, being ignorant how they celebrate it in their season…” Anti-Nicene Fathers, Vol. VI, p. 280.

The Temple & the Tequfah

…it is stated in Jack Finegan’s handbook of biblical chronology that when Solomon built the temple of Yahweh at Jerusalem that it was made specifically so that the sun would shine directly through the Eastern Gate on both the vernal and autumn equinoxes so that they could never get the calendar and Holy days incorrect.

http://gurdjieffdominican.com/vernal_Equinox_07.htm

“The most significant ancient religious structure for the Jewish people (and later Christians as well), was Solomon’s temple at Jerusalem, oriented to the Equinox sunrise. Each Spring Equinox, at the time of the ancient agricultural festival of sowing, sunlight was allowed to enter the length of an open passage from the doorway of the temple over the high altar and into the Holy of Holies. It is noted that, “There is evidence … that the entrance of the sunlight on the morning of the Spring Equinox formed part of the ceremonial. The priest being in the Holy Place, the worshippers outside, with their backs to the sun, could see the high priest by the sunlight reflected from the jewels of his garment”.

The Eastern orientation of the Temple is further seen in the Holy Scriptures where Israel had turned their backs on the Temple and faced the East. This would mean that the Temple was facing East as well.

Eze 8:16 And he brought me into the inner court of the house of YHWH. And, behold, at the opening of the temple of YHWH, between the porch and the altar, were about twenty five men with their backs to the temple of YHWH, and their faces eastward. And they bowed themselves eastward to the sun.

Kenneth F. Doig, New Testament Chronology,

“Many of these legal documents include the required Egyptian civil year date. Double-dated documents including the Hebrew dates of the Elephantine Jews cover the period 471 to 402 BCE. This included evening to evening days and a New Year beginning in Nisan (Aviv) only after the Vernal Equinox. Almost all of the datable documents can be referred back to a Nisan (Aviv) beginning only after the Vernal Equinox each year.”

Also, during the some 175 years of the Elephantine letters of the Jews in Diaspora in Egypt, never once did they start the year before either the precession of the equinoxes or the vernal equinox.

Between the years of 472BC and 400BC there were Jews living in Elephantine Egypt and they wrote letters to the Jews living in Jerusalem and many contracts such as wills and deeds, etc. … have been preserved in Elephantine. These letters are double dated with the dates of the Egyptian calendar as well as the Jewish calendar date.

Never once in this seventy-two period history did the Jews in Elephantine start the sacred year before the vernal equinox. 472BC-400BC was during the time that Ezra and Nehemiah were in Jerusalem.

Talmud and the tekufah

tekufat Nisan and Tishrei [the “turning” of these two months], the sun rises and sets exactly in the middle of East and West – we would say, on the equinox. In fact, our terminology differentiates between solstice (longest or shortest day) and equinox (equal day and night), while the Talmud calls each event a tekufat in its particular month. And it defines the space between them as “91 days and 7.5 hours.” And if you do the math through 4 seasons, you reach 365 days and 6 hours, or the solar year under the Julian calendar (365 ¼ days, made even by a leap year every 4). We know today that the actual solar year is 365 days, 5 hours, 49 minutes (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_year), which is why in our Gregorian calendar there are exceptions to leap years for years divisible by 100 or 400, but not bad on the Talmud’s part!

Rabbi Adam Chalom

http://www.kolhadash.com

The Hail Plague and the First Biblical Month

Herb Solinsky (c) February 19, 2003

New Discoveries In The Dead Sea Scrolls About TKUFAH!

“The Hebrew word TKUFAH, Strong’s number 8622, occurs four times in the Bible, Shemot/Ex 34:22; I Shmuel/Sam 1:20; II Divre Hayamim/Chr 24:23; Tehillim/Ps 19:7. In 1907 when the well known lexicon by Brown, Driver, and Briggs abbreviated BDB was published (see page 880 for TKUFAH), the Dead Sea Scrolls were not yet discovered and clarifying insightful meanings into some ancient Hebrew words were not yet available. The Dead Sea Scrolls use the Hebrew word TKUFAH in contexts before the time of Moshiach, and this is now discussed. The paper by Hoenig discusses a scroll labeled I QH among the Dead Sea Scrolls. On pages 312-313 he explains two expressions found there: one is “TKUFAH of the day” and the other is “at the appointed time of the night at TKUFAH”.

Hoenig explains that the former means “zenith of the day” meaning “noon” and the latter means “at the appointed time of the night at zenith” meaning “midnight”. It is particularly interesting that in the expression “at the appointed time of the night at TKUFAH” the Hebrew word for “appointed time” is MOED, the same word used for the holy days in

Wayiqra/Lev. 23 and for seasons in Beresheet/Gen 1:14. Thus it is not foreign to ancient Hebrew to use or associate TKUFAH with MOED. This use of TKUFAH shows two heavenly bodies, the earth and sun, interacting on a daily basis so that at astronomically distinctive points in time TKUFAH refers to those points in time.

In the book chapter by Johann Maier one of the Dead Sea Scrolls is discussed that contains the Hebrew word TKUFAH. On page 146 Maier writes, “The Songs themselves are attached to the thirteen Sabbaths of one quarter, or season (tqufah) of a year, according to the editor the first quarter (the Aviv season) only.” Here we see the Hebrew word TKUFAH used for the season of spring, which begins with the vernal equinox and ends with the summer solstice. Here also astronomically distinctive points in time involving the earth and sun define a time period called TKUFAH.

Spring Equinox in Sirach/ Ecclesiaticus

The intertestamental (between testaments) apocryphal Book of Sirach (also known as Ecclesiaticus) contains the Hebrew word TKUFAH. This book was written in Hebrew about 190 BCE, but today only incomplete sections of it have survived, having been discovered with thousands of other Hebrew texts in the attic of a synagogue in Cairo, Egypt toward the end of the nineteenth century. The treasure of texts in that attic which survived for many hundreds of years is known as the Cairo Geniza. There are many copies of Sirach in Greek translation, and most of the Hebrew words in Sirach 43:7 is preserved, one of them being TKUFAH.

The Greek translation for TKUFAH is SUNTELIA (Strong’s Greek number 4930) which means completion, fulfillment, or destruction. These words indicate a point in time at which some event occurred. In harmony with this idea, the Jerusalem Bible translates Sirach 43:7, “the moon it is that signals the feasts, a luminary that wanes after her full”. Here “her full” refers to the full moon and is translated from TKUFAH, or SUNTELIA. Here TKUFAH refers to a natural distinctive time of the moon in its movement about the earth.

These contexts from the Dead Sea Scrolls and from Sirach from before the time of Moshiach show that the Hebrew word TKUFAH is used to refer to natural distinctive points, or time intervals associated with the heavenly bodies of the earth, sun, and moon.

On page 394 of the lexicon by Holladay the word TKUFAH is defined. The parentheses and square brackets are part of the text of that book by Holladay where he writes about TKUFAH “turning (of sun at solstice) Ps 19:7; (of the year, i.e. end of year, at autumnal equinox) Ex 34:22; (of the days [i.e. of the year] = end of year I Sam 1:20″.

The Hebrew noun TKUFAH has an inner stem in common with the Hebrew verb NAHKAHF which occurs 19 times in the Bible. The latter means “to surround” 11 times – I Ki 7:24; II Ki 6:14; 11:8; II Chr 4:3; 23:7; Job 19:6; Ps 17:9; 22:16; 88:17; Isa 15:8; Lam 3:5. It means “to go around” four times – Josh 6:3, 11; Ps 48:12; Isa 29:1 (“add year to year, let feasts ‘go around’”). It means “to destroy” twice – Job 19:26; Isa 10:34. It means “to curve” once – Lev 19:27. It means “to finish” once – Job 1:5. The overall flavor of this word indicates the idea of encirclement which does not have any implication about accurate clock time measurement. The relationship between TKUFAH and NAHKAHF indicates that encirclement of heavenly bodies provides the basis of the meaning rather than the Latin meaning of equinox (equal night with day). When the word equinox is used, its original Latin meaning is discarded, and instead, the time of its practical determination anciently is meant. This time agrees with the modern astronomer’s time for the equinox although the modern astronomer uses a technical definition that ancient peoples could not have used.

Page 124 of Pannekoek states, “Another instrument they [the Greek astronomers living in Egypt after the time of Alexander the Great] used was an equatorial ring, placed before the temples in Alexandria, in Rhodes, and perhaps in other towns, for calendar purposes. It consisted of a cylindrical belt, with its upper and lower borders exactly in the direction of the equatorial plane; the shadow of the southern half upon the inner side of the northern half left a narrow line of light at the upper or at the lower side of the equator. Thus the exact moment of the equinoxes could be fixed.” This modern description of this ancient instrument uses the term “equatorial plane” which the ancient Greeks did not use; they bisected shadow angles at the solstices in order to construct this instrument which is today called the equatorial ring. Pages 73-74 of Pannekoek state, “The Babylonians, according to Greek testimony, used a vertical pole for measuring shadow length; thus they could determine the moments of solstice and, as medium points between the solstices, the moments of vernal and autumnal equinoxes.”

The paper by Neugebauer proposes a simple geometric method by which the Great Pyramid could have been constructed so that it could have achieved its great accuracy in cardinal directions (precise east-west and north-south). Only on the days of the true equinoxes (not when daytime and nighttime are equal) does the shadow of a vertical object fall exactly east-west all of the daytime.

Pliny the Elder, writing about the middle of the first century, defines the equinox in two ways that are somewhat contradictory on page 309 of Pliny_1. He writes that “at the season of the equinox sunrise and sunset are seen on the same line”, and this is the east-west line; this definition is practical and accurate, and while stated in a way that is very different from a modern astronomy book, it is nevertheless the same in the time. Pliny also writes “the equal hours of day and night at the equinox”. When rounding off to hours this is correct, but not when rounding off to minutes in the latitude of the Mediterranean Sea where Pliny lived.

On page 81 of Pasachoff we find, “These points are called equinoxes because the daytime and the nighttime are supposedly equal 12-hour lengths on these days. Actually, because the refraction by the earth’s atmosphere makes the sun appear to rise ahead of the middle of the sun, at U.S. latitudes the daytime exceeds the nighttime by about 10 minutes on the days of the equinoxes. The days of equal daytime and nighttime precede the vernal equinox and follow the autumnal equinox by a few days.”

This is about four or five days for the U.S.

The Vernal Equinox and Ex 12:2 Gen 1:14 mentions the lights in the heavens, and these are the sun, the moon, the stars, the planets, and comets.

The cycles of the planets and comets are much too irregular in comparison to repeatable phenomena on the earth to consider in relation to a biblical calendar when considering the lights in the heavens. The stars must be excluded because during every 1000 tropical years the time of the appearance of the stars slowly shifts about 14.1 days further into the tropical year thus losing touch with the earth’s seasons; this is called precession of the equinoxes in books on astronomy. Only the sun and moon remain to be considered.

The moon determines the months, but not which month is the first. Only the sun remains to be considered. The only repeatable time points involving the sun are the two equinoxes and the two solstices. Considering that the barley and wheat in Yisrael are harvested in the spring, the vernal equinox is the only logical candidate to consider that involves the lights in the heavens on the direct basis on Gen 1:14.

We must seek to know what Moses knew. Maaseh Shlichim/Acts 7:22 reads [NKJV], “And Moses was learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, and was mighty in words and deeds.” Pages 333, 336-337 of Lockyer show that most of the Egyptian pyramids are oriented east-west, and the two largest pyramids at Gizeh built by Cheops and Chephren are oriented east-west, having one wall aligned exactly east-west.

Pages 63-64 of Lockyer explain that the sun’s shadow on a vertical object from sunrise to sunset fall exactly east-west only on the days of the equinoxes. So it is clear that Moses knew how to determine the days of the equinoxes.

Josephus

As we have pointed out, this already-ancient calendar was the one in use in the land of his birth where Abraham grew up. Abraham left Ur to follow the one true King of the Universe into what came to be the promised land. When he did, he took his knowledge of the ancient lunar calendar with him. Abraham was no unintelligent barbarian. The first century Jewish priest Flavius Josephus, being privy to the ancient records of Israel preserved into the first century by the priesthood at the Temple, confirms what an examination of the facts suggests. Josephus recounts that the patriarch Abraham when in Egypt taught the Egyptian astronomers accurate astronomy, the science on which time reckoning is based, as well as mathematics which he had learned when he resided in Sumeria-Babylonia (Antiquities: Book 1:8:2). He also notes that Moshe/Moses used this same reckoning of time known to Abraham, when he led the tribes of Israel out of Egypt. Josephus even states the amount of time that had elapsed from Adam to the Exodus as tracked through succeeding generations according to this very same reckoning of time! (Antiquities: Book. 1:3:3).

Testimony of Philo Judeos

With the help of a little sloppiness in the existing translations it is easy for readers to become confused about what Philo means. To help explain one confusing part of Philo’s writings I made a word for word translation from the Greek. Here is my literal translation of Philo’s On the Creation, paragraph 116 (in chapter 39) on pages 92-95 of Philo_1: “The sun, too, the great lord of the day, bringing about two equinoxes each year, spring and autumn, the spring in [the] Ram and the autumn in [the] Scales, supplies very clear evidence of the sacred dignity of the seventh [number], for each of the equinoxes occurs [near a] seventh month, and during them [these seventh months] there is enjoined by the Torah the keeping of the greatest national festivals, since [during] both of them [these seventh months] fruits of the earth ripen, [in the] spring indeed grain produce and all else that is sown, and [in] autumn the [fruit] of the vine and most of the other fruit trees.” One peculiar thing to notice here is that Philo uses the word “spring” twice as though it meant “spring equinox” and the word “autumn” twice as though it meant “autumn equinox”. Elsewhere he seems to use the word “equinox” to mean the season that it begins; for example, he writes separately of the feast of trumpets at/in the autumn equinox and the feast of tabernacles at/in the autumn equinox. Philo enjoys analogies, symmetry, and approximation in his writings.

Philo discusses Shemot/Ex. 12:2 on pages 2-5 of PhiloQE (Exodus, Book 1.1). On page 2 he writes, “‘ This month (shall be) for you the beginning of months; it is the first in the months of the year.’ (Scripture) thinks it proper to reckon the cycle of months from the vernal equinox. Moreover, (this month) is said to be the ‘first’ and the ‘beginning’ by synonymy, since these (terms) are explained by each other, for it is said to be the first in order and in power; similarly that time which proceeds from the vernal equinox also appears (as) the beginning both in order and in power, in the same way as the head (is the beginning) of a living creature. And thus those who are learned in astronomy have given this name to the before-mentioned time. For they call the Ram the head of the zodiac since in it the sun appears to produce the vernal equinox.”

Then on page 3 he writes, “And that (Scripture) presupposes the vernal equinox to be the beginning of the cycle of months is clear from the notions of time held in the ordinances and traditions of various nations.” As a commentary to this last sentence, page 391 of Samuel states, “In the areas of Syria and the East controlled by the Seleucid kings, the Macedonian calendar was adjusted to make its months coincide with the months of the Babylonian calendar, which was in turn regulated locally by a nineteen-year cycle.

The first month of the year is known as Abib

Exo 23:15 You shall keep the Feast of Unleavened Bread. Seven days you shall eat unleavened bread, as I have commanded you, at the set time of the month of Abib. For in it you came out from Egypt, and they shall not appear before Me empty.

Deu 16:1 Observe the month Abib, and perform the Passover to YHWH your God. For in the month of Abib YHWH your God brought you out of Egypt by night.

Here we see that abib means something new, which continues the next generation.

Aviv comes from root av:

Here again we see that the word aviv is tracing back to something new or fresh and something that continues. This is connected to the calendar in that Spring is the new/fresh start of the year, continuing the cycle of the years anew. Just as the word indicates. Interesting, the pictograph means a pole. In order to find the equinoxes in ancient times a pole was used.

Pages 73-74 of Pannekoek state, “The Babylonians, according to Greek testimony, used a vertical pole for measuring shadow length; thus they could determine the moments of solstice and, as medium points between the solstices, the moments of vernal and autumnal equinoxes.”

http://www.astro.uu.nl/~strous/AA/en/antwoorden/zonpositie.html

At the meridian transit of the Sun,

1. the Sun is due north or due south (depending on your location), so the shadow of a vertical pole points straight south or north. If you mark a line from the bottom of the pole that goes straight north or south, then the meridian transit occurs when the shadow of the pole falls on that line.

2. the Sun is highest in the sky, so a vertical pole casts the shortest shadow. When the shadow is shortest, then the meridian transit is there.

The first method is better than the second, because the length of the shadow changes the slowest around the time of meridian transit, but the direction of the shadow changes the fastest around the time of meridian transit.

Barley aviv

http://www.iahushua.com/ST-RP/Calendar2.html

“Although barley ripens in the spring, the following considerations indicate the barley harvest does not establish the first day of the year.

For two successive growing seasons (the Sabbath and Jubilee years), no grain was to be planted and, therefore, no maturing barley was available to consult (Lev. 25:1-24). True, barley sometimes sprouts and grows voluntarily with no cultivation, but this was less likely in the second year. It was illegal to reap volunteer grain in the 50th year, so Israel probably allowed their flocks to graze the fields. This was legal (Lev. 25:7,11).

During the flood, Noah was apparently able to determine the first day of the year without consulting the barley harvest.

During the 40 years of wandering in the wilderness (a desert), Israel kept a careful record of the months and years – apparently without consulting the barley harvest in Canaan.

There have been many times in history due to disasters and droughts etc, where it would have been very difficult to get a barley sighting in order to proclaim a new year.”

Jas 5:17 Elijah was a man of like feeling to us, and he prayed in prayer for it not to rain; and it did not rain on the earth three years and six months.

“In 25 B.C. the rains failed and there was no harvest in Palestine or Syria. -Life and Times of Herod the Great pg 135-136″

The prophet Joel speaks of times where there is no barley to search for an abib status.

Joe 1:9 The food offering and the drink offering have been cut off from the house of Jehovah; the priests, YHWH’s ministers, mourn.

Joe 1:10 The field is wasted; the land mourns, for the grain is wasted. The new wine is dried up, the oil tree droops.

Joe 1:11 Be withered, farmers, howl, vinedressers, for the wheat and for the barley; because the harvest of the field has perished.

אביב Aviv

אביב comes from the root אב (Father). Aviv is referring to the next generation of the crop which came from the parent. Aviv points to the Messiah who came forth from the Father (John 8:42; 16:28) and His body that comes forth from Him (John 17:18; 20:21).

H24

אביב

‘âbı̂yb

Total KJV Occurrences: 8

abib, 6

Exo_13:4, Exo_23:15, Exo_34:18 (2), Deu_16:1 (2)

ear, 1

Exo_9:31

ears, 1

Lev_2:14

This word occurs 8 times in the Scriptures, this number points to Messiah.

Yahshua in Greek = 888

888 is also equivalent to the Hebrew phrases ‘yeshot elohaynu’ (Salvation of our God) and ‘hashamayim misparim kavod El’ (The heavens declare the Glory of El)

The phrase ‘the heavens declare the Glory of El’ is found in Psalm 19:1 which describes the circuit (tequfah) of the sun.
Sun – 8 – Connection
The word for 8 in Hebrew is:
This comes from the root:
The root of 8 comes from ‘shem’ (name/character) which is the same root as sun ‘shemesh.’
Further connecting the sun & the number eight is the word oil. The Holy Spirit is likened to oil (1Samuel 16:13; Zechariah 4:2-3; Revelation 4:5). The sun moves upon the spirit/wind (Ecclesiastes 1:5-6).
רח is the root of the word ‘Ruach’, the Spirit.
The sun’s cycle makes an interesting form when it moves throughout the sky during the year. This phenomenon is known as the ‘analemma.’ If you photographed the sun once a week at the same time of day for an entire year, you would have a photo of the analemma, the sun’s apparent path on the sky over the course of a year, which looks like a figure-eight.

The Sun is moving in a continual ‘figure eight’ path.

The following pictures are taken from a program called Stellarium. These 4 pictures show the alignments of the sun, moon and stars in the year 2010 at the 2 equinoxes, and solstices at sunset in Jerusalem.

At the Spring Tequfah (‘equinox’)

At the Summer Tequfah

At the Autumn Tequfah

At the Winter Tequfah

Aviv is the first month of the year in the Biblical Calendar (Exodus 12:2). Aviv happens after the sun makes it’s full revolution/circuit (tekupha) which is seen in the analemma figure above. Hence, the new year (aviv) starts when the figure eight is complete.

This analemma cycle is seen in the Scriptures.

Ecc 1:5 The sun also arises, and the sun goes even panting to its place; it arises there again.

Ecc 1:6 The wind goes toward the south, and turning around to the north; the wind is going around and around. And the wind returns on its circuits.

Septuagint (LXX)

Ecc 1:5 And the sun arises, and the sun goes down and draws toward its place;

Ecc 1:6 arising there it proceeds southward, and goes round toward the north. The wind goes round and round, and the wind returns to its circuits.

Vulgate (Japhet translation)

The sun rises and sets and returns to its place. It rises there, goes to the south and turns about to the north. As it circles the world around goes the spirit, and upon its circuit returns.

John Gill commentary

Ecc 1:6 The wind goeth toward the south, and turneth about unto the north,…. The word “wind” is not in this clause in the original text, but is taken from the next, and so may be rendered, “it goeth towards the south”, &c. that is, the sun (x) before mentioned, which as to its diurnal and nocturnal course in the daytime goes towards the south, and in the night towards the north; and as to its annual course before the winter solstice it goes to the south, and before the summer solstice to the north, as interpreters observe. And the Targum not only interprets this clause, but even the whole verse, of the sun, paraphrasing the whole thus,

“it goes all the side of the south in the daytime, and goes round to the side of the north in the night, by the way of the abyss; it goes its circuit, and comes to the wind of the south corner in the revolution of Nisan and Tammuz; and by its circuit it returns to the wind of the north corner in the revolution of Tisri and Tebet; it goes out of the confines of the east in the morning, and goes into the confines of the west in the evening.”

Adam Clarke commentary

Ecc 1:6

“The wind is continually whirling about, and the wind returneth upon its whirlings.”

It is plain, from the clause which I have restored to the fifth verse, that the author refers to the approximations of the sun to the northern and southern tropics, viz., of Cancer and Capricorn.

All the versions agree in applying the first clause of the sixth verse to the sun, and not to the wind. Our version alone has mistaken the meaning. My old MS. Bible is quite correct:

The sunne riisith up, and goth doun, and to his place turnith agein; and there agein riising, goth about bi the south, and then agein to the north.

The author points out two things here:

1. Day and night, marked by the appearance of the sun above the horizon; proceeding apparently from east to west; where he sinks under the horizon, and appears to be lost during the night.

2. His annual course through the twelve signs of the zodiac, when, from the equinoctial, he proceeds southward to the tropic of Capricorn; and thence turneth about towards the north, till he reaches the tropic of Cancer; and so on.

The sowing and harvest cycle of ancient Israel was based upon the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Wheel of the Stars – Andrew Gabriel Roth pg 61

“The use of constellations, along with the solar cycle, coordinating the rising and the setting of the sun with a given star or group of stars was exactly the way Adam, Noah, and Abraham also times their planting and harvest seasons.”

Philo – On Creation 1:116

(116) And the sun, the ruler of the day, making two equinoxes every year, both in spring and autumn. The spring equinox in the constellation of Aries, and the autumnal one in Libra, gives the most evident demonstration possible of the divine dignity of the number seven. For each of the equinoxes takes place in the seventh month, at which time men are expressly commanded by law to celebrate the greatest and most popular and comprehensive festivals; since it is owing to both these seasons, that all the fruits of the earth are engendered and brought to perfection; the fruit of corn, and all other things which are sown, being owing to the vernal equinox; and that of the vine, and of all the other plants which bear hard berries, of which there are great numbers, to the autumnal one.

Gen 8:22 While the earth remains, seedtime and harvest, cold and heat, summer and winter, and day and night shall not cease.

Adam Clarke commentary

Gen 8:22

While the earth remaineth, seed-time and harvest, etc. – There is something very expressive in the original, עד כל ימי הארץ od col yemey haarets, until all the Days of the earth; for God does not reckon its duration by centuries, and the words themselves afford a strong presumption that the earth shall not have an endless duration.

Seed-time and harvest – It is very probable that the seasons, which were distinctly marked immediately after the deluge, are mentioned in this place; but it is difficult to ascertain them. Most European nations divide the year into four distinct parts, called quarters or seasons; but there are six divisions in the text, and probably all intended to describe the seasons in one of these postdiluvian years, particularly in that part of the globe, Armenia, where Noah was when God gave him, and mankind through him, this gracious promise. From the Targum of Jonathan on this verse we learn that in Palestine their seed-time was in September, at the autumnal equinox; their harvest in March, at the vernal equinox; that their winter began in December, at the solstice; and their summer at the solstice in June.

Job 37:6 For He says to the snow, Fall on the earth; also to the shower of rain, and the shower of heavy rains.

Job 37:7 He seals up the hand of every man so that all men may know His work.

Job 37:8 Then the beast goes into its lair, and they stay in their dens.

Job 37:9 Out of the storeroom comes the tempest, and cold from scattering winds.

Kiel & Delitzsch commentary

The ל of לַשֶּׁלֶג influences Job_37:6 also. The Hebr. name for rain, גֶּשֶׁם (cogn. with Chald. גשׁם, Arab. gism, a body), denotes the rain collectively. The expression Job_37:6 is exceeded in Job_37:6, where מִטְרֹות does not signify rain-drops (Ew.), but, like the Arab. amtâr, rain-showers. The wonders of nature during the rough season (חֹרֶף, סְתָיו, Son_2:11), between the autumnal and vernal equinoxes, are meant; the rains after the autumnal equinox (the early rain), which begin the season, and the rains before the vernal equinox (the late rain, Zec_10:1), which close it, with the falls of snow between, which frequently produce great desolation, especially the proper winter with its frosty winds and heavy showers, when the business of the husbandmen as of the nomads is brought to a stand-still, and every one retreats to his house or seeks a sheltering corner.

Adam Clarke commentary

Job 37:9

Out of the south cometh the whirlwind – See the note on Job_9:9. What is rendered south here, is there rendered chambers. Mr. Good translates here, the utmost zone. The Chaldee: – “From the supreme chamber the commotion shall come; and from the cataracts of Arcturus the cold.

Aviv, the Covenant, and signs/seals

When YHWH cut the covenant with Abraham on Passover, He walked between the pieces of the sacrificed animals as a burning torch. In ancient times when a covenant was cut, the two covenant partners walked through the halves of the split animal(s) in a ‘figure eight’. They would lay each half to the side of each other and stand in between the two bloody halves of flesh, with their backs to each other. Then they would walk right through the bloody halves, making a figure eight, and come back to a stop facing each other.

This links back to the analemma and the sun as it was a fiery torch that passed through the pieces, or made the figure eight. This shows that the movement of the sun through the sky is a constant reminder of the covenant. This is seen in Jeremiah 31:31-37; 33:14-26)

Gen 15:17 And it happened, the sun had gone down, and it was dark. Behold! A smoking furnace and a torch of fire that passed between those pieces!

Circumcision, a sign of the covenant, is made on the 8th day (Genesis 17:11-14)

Rom 4:11 And he received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith which he had yet being uncircumcised: that he might be the father of all them that believe, though they be not circumcised; that righteousness might be imputed unto them also:

Circumcision pictures baptism & resurrection (Ezekiel 11:19-20; 36:26-27; Romans 2:29; Colossians 2:11-13)

What is the faith that Abraham had?

Gen 15:5 And He brought him outside and said, Look now at the heavens and count the stars, if you are able to count them. And He said to him, So shall your seed be.

Gen 15:6 And he believed in YHWH. And He counted it to him for righteousness.

Notice that Abraham’s faith was in the Word of Elohim, revealed through the stars being as His Seed.

In Hebrew, Astronomy is תכונה

תכונה is only used one time in the Scriptures:

Job 23:3 Oh that I knew where I might find Him, I would come into His seat;

This is speaking of the Throne of Elohim.

Keil and Delitszch commentary

If he but knew how to reach Him (God), could attain to His throne; תְּכוּנָה signifies the setting up, i.e., arrangement (Eze_43:11) or establishment (Nah_2:10) of a dwelling, and the thing itself which is set out and established, here of the place where God’s throne is established. (everywhere from כּוּן, not from תָּכַן)

The Scriptures speak of the heavens as His throne Matthew 5:34; Isaiah 66:1; Psalm 11:4.

תכונה comes from the word כון which means a foundation or something that is firm, something that is orderly.

Psa 103:19 YHWH has prepared (kun) His throne in Heaven, and His kingdom rules over all.

Psa 8:3 When I look upon Your heavens, the work of Your fingers: the moon and the stars which You have fixed (kun);

Psa 8:4 what is man that You are mindful of him, and the son of man, that You visit him?

תכונה comes from the parent root:

Notice this word is associated with a seed opening and rising out of the ground. This is a picture of the resurrection and Messiahclick here. The seed & the stars are linked through Yisrael (Genesis 15:5; 22:17; 26:4)

Messiah = Yisrael

Isa 49:3 And said unto me, Thou art my servant, O Israel, in whom I will be glorified.

Isa 49:5 And now, saith the LORD that formed me from the womb to be his servant, to bring Jacob again to him, Though Israel be not gathered, yet shall I be glorious in the eyes of the LORD, and my God shall be my strength.

This prophecy is speaking of Messiah. Messiah is the Servant Israel.

Isa 49:6 And he said, It is a light thing that thou shouldest be my servant to raise up the tribes(H7626) of Jacob, and to restore the preserved(v’netsri-Netsarim=followers of Messiah) of Israel.I will also give thee for a light to the Gentiles, that thou mayest be my salvation(H3444yeshua) unto the end of the earth.

Aviv is linked with the sign/seal/mark of YHWH

Exo 13:4 Today, in the month of Abib, you are going out.

Exo 13:5 And it shall be when YHWH brings you into the land of the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Amorite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite, which He swore to your fathers to give to you, a land flowing with milk and honey, you shall do this service in this month.

Exo 13:6 Seven days you shall eat unleavened bread, and on the seventh day keep a feast to YHWH.

Exo 13:7 Unleavened bread shall be eaten the seven days. And leavened bread for you shall not be seen; yea, no leaven shall be seen among you in all your boundaries.

Exo 13:8 And you shall tell your son in that day, saying, It is because of what YHWH did for me when I came out from Egypt. Exo 13:9 And it shall be for a sign to you on your hand, and a memorial between your eyes, so that a Law of YHWH may be in your mouth. For with a strong hand YHWH brought you out from Egypt.

Exo 13:10 And you shall keep this ordinance at its appointed time, from days to days.

It is during this month of Aviv, and in particular the 7 days of Unleavened Bread, that the firstfruits offering was offered. This was of the barley, which too is a picture of Messiah. The English word barley traces back to the Hebrew word ‘bar’ which means Son (Psalm 2:12). The etymology of the word barley also is related to the body (ie the body of Messiah). Barley – (from Proto Germanic. *bariz, *baraz) + -lic “body, like.”

Notice also that the pictographic meaning of בר is ‘family of heads.’ This is significant, in that one of the words in Hebrew for ‘firstfruit’ is ‘resheit’ which comes from ‘rosh’ which means a head. Bar (son) = a family of heads or firstfruits. This is what the Yisrael of Elohim is.
Jer 2:3 Israel was holy to YHWH , the first fruits ( ראשׁית H7225) of His increase. All that devour him become guilty; evil shall come on them, declares YHWH.
Firstfruits

Lev 23:10 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, When ye be come into the land which I give unto you, and shall reap the harvest thereof, then ye shall bring a sheaf of the firstfruits of your harvest unto the priest:

Lev 23:11 And he shall wave the sheaf before the LORD, to be accepted for you: on the morrow after the sabbath the priest shall wave it.

Going back to Exodus 13, notice that the next verses link the firstborn to Passover & Aviv

Exo 13:11 And it shall be when YHWH brings you into the land of the Canaanite, as He swore to you and to your fathers, and gives it to you,

Exo 13:12 you shall set apart to YHWH every one opening the womb, and every firstling, the offspring of animals which are yours; the males are YHWH’s.

Exo 13:13 And every firstling of an ass you shall redeem with a flock animal. And if you do not redeem, you shall break its neck. And every first-born of men among your sons you shall redeem.

Aviv linked with the offering of firstfruits (firstborn)

Lev 2:14 And if you bring near a food offering of firstfruits to YHWH, fresh ears (אביב aviv) roasted with fire, grains from a garden, you shall bring near your firstfruits for a food offering.

The firstborn was given on the 8th day

Exo 22:29 You shall not delay giving the fullness of your crops and the juices of your vintage. You shall give to Me the first-born of your sons.

Exo 22:30 So you shall do to your oxen, to your sheep: it shall be seven days with its mother; on the eighth day you shall give it to Me.

Yahshua is the Firstfruit/Firstborn

1Co 15:20 But now Christ has been raised from the dead; He became the firstfruit of those having fallen asleep.

1Co 15:21 For since death is through man, also through a Man is a resurrection of the dead;

1Co 15:22 for as in Adam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive.

1Co 15:23 But each in his own order: Christ, the firstfruit; afterward those of Christ at His coming.

1Co 15:24 Then is the end, when He delivers the kingdom to God, even the Father, when He makes to cease all rule and all authority and power.

Rom 8:28 But we know that to the ones loving God all things work together for good, to those being called according to purpose;

Rom 8:29 because whom He foreknew, He also predestinated to be conformed to the image of His Son, for Him to be the First-born among many brothers.

Rom 8:30 But whom He predestinated, these He also called; and whom He called, these He also justified; and whom He justified, these He also glorified.

Rom 11:16 Now if the firstfruit is holy, so also the lump. And if the root is holy, so also the branches.

His body

Heb 12:22 But you have drawn near Mount Zion (Isa 2, Psa 87) even the city of the living God, to a heavenly Jerusalem, and to myriads of angels,

Heb 12:23 and to a gathering, an assembly of the first-born ones having been enrolled in Heaven; and to God the Judge of all, and to spirits of just ones who have been perfected;

Jas 1:18 Having purposed, He brought us forth by the Word of truth, for us to be a certain firstfruit of His creatures.

For more on Firstfruits, the Priesthood & 144,000 click here

Aviv & the color green

Strong’s Concordance

H24

אביב

‘âbı̂yb

aw-beeb’

From an unused root (meaning to be tender); green, that is a young ear of grain; hence the name of the month Abib or Nisan: – Abib, ear, green ears of corn.

Gen 1:11 And God said, Let the earth bring forth (dasha) grass (deshe), the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: and it was so.

In Messiah in the Torah Genesis 1:9-13, it is seen that the earth bringing forth (dasha) is linked to birth/rebirth/resurrection. Dasha (bringing forth) is the same Hebrew word as grass (deshe).

This links grass with birth and resurrection

Deshe is also translated as green

Psa 23:2 He makes me lie down in green pastures; He leads me to waters of rest;

Here it is seen that the color green, and in particular green grass sprouting in the spring (Aviv) is linked with the resurrection & rebirth.

Green – Karpas

Another one of the words translated as green in the Scriptures is ‘karpas’ (Esther 1:6).

Those who have celebrated Passover with a traditional seder are familiar with this word. Pesach is kept during the month of Aviv. Karpas is the point of the meal where the Karpas (usually parsley) is dipped in saltwater, symbolically representing resurrection and passing through the Yam Suf. This was a picture of baptism and resurrection.

1Co 10:1 And I do not want you to be ignorant, brothers, that our fathers were all under the cloud, and all passed through the Sea.

1Co 10:2 And all were baptized to Moses in the cloud, and in the Sea,

1Co 10:3 and all ate the same spiritual food.

1Co 10:4 And all drank the same spiritual drink; for they drank of the spiritual rock following, and that Rock was Christ.

The English word green comes from the Old English ‘growan’ which means to grow and also has the sense of fresh or new, as in a ‘greenhorn.’

Aviv – Ear

The word aviv is translated as ‘ear’ in two verses of the Scripture (Exodus 9:31; Leviticus 2:14). This word in English comes from the Old English ‘ear’ which means a ‘spike, ear of grain.’ It traces back to Greek word ‘akoste’ which means barley.

There is another interesting connection between Aviv on earth and Aviv in heaven in the star Spica. Spica is a Latin word which means ‘ear of grain’ and corresponds to the Greek word stakhys. This is the origin of the English word ‘spike’ which is related to the English word ‘ear’ mentioned above.

Spica is the star in the hand of the constellation Bethulah (Virgo) and corresponds to the Hebrew word ‘Tsemach’ (the BRANCH Isaiah 4:2; Jeremiah 23:5,6; Zechariah 3:8; 6:12). Tsemach has the meaning of a sprouting plant.

The Messiah is likened to a plant rising from the ground

Isa 11:1 And a Shoot goes out from the stump of Jesse, and a Branch will bear fruit out of his roots.

Isa 11:10 And it shall be in that day, the Root of Jesse stands as a banner of peoples; nations shall seek to Him; and His resting place shall be glory.

Isa 53:1 Who has believed our report? And to whom is the arm of YHWH revealed?

Isa 53:2 For He comes up before Him as a tender plant, and as a root out of dry ground. He has no form nor magnificence that we should see Him; nor form that we should desire Him.

Zec 6:12 And speak to him, saying, So says YHWH of Hosts, saying, Behold! The Man {Yehoshua} whose name is THE BRANCH*! And He shall spring up out of His place, and He shall build the temple of YHWH.

*This is capitalized in most English versions of the Scriptures because it is a direct reference to the Messiah. The word used here is ‘Tsemach’ and is used 5 times in reference to the Messiah in Scripture.

Isa 4:2 In that day the Branch of YHWH will be beautiful and glorious, and the fruit of the earth for pride and for glory for the survivors of Israel.

Jer 23:5 Behold, the days come, says YHWH, that I will raise to David a righteous Branch, and a King shall reign and act wisely, and He shall do justice and righteousness in the earth.

Jer 23:6 In His days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell safely. And this is His name by which He shall be called, YHWH our Righteousness.

Jer 33:15 In those days, and at that time, I will cause a Branch of Righteousness to grow up to David. And He shall do judgment and righteousness in the land.

Jer 33:16 In those days Judah shall be saved, and Jerusalem shall dwell in safety. And this is the name that shall be called on her: YHWH OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS.

Zec 3:9 For, behold, I will bring forth My Servant, the BRANCH. For behold, the stone which I have given before Joshua, on the one stone are seven eyes. I will engrave its engraving, says YHWH of Hosts, and I will remove the iniquity of that land in one day.

The New Testament further links the BRANCH (tsemach) to the heavenly bodies.

Luk 1:78 through the tender heart of mercy of our God, in which the Dayspring from on high will visit us,

Robertson’s Word Pictures

The dayspring from on high (anatolē ex hupsous). Literally, rising from on high, like the rising sun or stars (Isa_60:19). The word is used also of a sprouting plant or branch (Jer_23:5; Zec_6:12)

Notice that Spica is in line with Arcturus. Arcturus is mentioned above in Job 38 (ayish).

Bright star Arcturus is a harbinger of spring

http://earthsky.org/tonight/star-arcturus-a-sparkling-harbinger-of-spring

“Arcturus’ appearance in the evening sky is a welcome sign in our northern climes, because it heralds the coming of the spring equinox, or first day of spring….Arcturus, like any star, rises 4 minutes earlier every day. Soon, the earlier-rising Arcturus will first beam at dusk, instead of nightfall or evening. Around the time that happens, spring will return to our northern hemisphere!”

Another Arcturus link

Job 39:1 Do you know the time when the wild goats of the rock bear? Do you observe the calving of deer?

Job 39:2 Can you tell the months they fulfill; or do you know the time for their bearing

John Gill commentary

Job 39:2 Canst thou number the months that they fulfil?…. Which some understand both of wild goats and hinds. Common goats fulfil five months, they conceive in November, and bring forth in March, as Pliny (f) observes; but how many the wild goats of the rock fulfil is not said by him or any other I know of: the same writer says (g) of hinds, that they go eight months;

or knowest thou the time when they bring forth? naturalists (h) tell us, that the hinds conceive after the rise of the star Arcturus, which rises eleven days before the autumnal equinox; so that they conceive in September; and as they go eight months, they bring forth in April; but then the exact time to a day and hour is not known. Besides, who has fixed the time for their bringing forth, and carries them in it through so many dangers and difficulties? None but the Lord himself. Now if such common things in nature were not known perfectly by Job, how should he be able to search into and find out the causes and reasons of God’s providential dealings with men, or what is in the womb of Providence?

(f) Nat. Hist. l. 8. c. 50. (g) Ib. c. 32. (h) Ib. & l. 2. c. 47. Aristot. Hist. Animal. l. 6. c. 29. Solinus, c. 31.

1st Fruit

First Fruit = Olive tree

Rom 11:16 Now if the firstfruit is holy, so also the lump. And if the root is holy, so also the branches.

Interestingly, it is during Spring around the time of early April that Spica rises above the horizon as the sun sets (The Friendly Stars pg 25).

Aviv – New

In the Septuagint Aviv is translated as ‘neon’ which means new. The English word ‘new’ traces back to this Greek word neos

Exo 13:4 ἐν γὰρ τῇ σήμερον ὑμεῖς ἐκπορεύεσθε ἐν μηνὶ τῶν νέων.

Calendar Considerations

From the Vernal Equinox to the Autumnal Equinox equals approximately 186 days, (which leaves about 179 or 180 days between the Autumnal Equinox and the Vernal Equinox).

From one new moon to the next new moon (a synodic month) equals approximately 29.5 days.

From the first new moon to the seventh new moon equals 177 days (29.5 X 6 lunar month = 177 days).

Assume this is a year in which a new moon falls 13 days before the spring equinox.

Subtract the 13 days “spent” before the spring equinox from the 177 days comprising the six lunar months (177 days – 13 days = 164 days), then subtract the quotient (164 days) from the 186 days the circuit of the sun from spring equinox to the fall equinox. This brings us to a time which is 21 or 22 days before the autumnal equinox, placing most of the Feast of Tabernacles before the “turn of the year” (before tekufah).

Sukkot is held after the autumnal tequfot

Exo 34:22 And you shall observe a Feast of Weeks for yourself, the firstfruits of the harvest of wheat; also the Feast of Ingathering at the turn (tequfah) of the year.

Summary

If we accept a new moon nearest but 13 days before the spring equinox as the 1st day of Abib, then the 177 days (which make up six lunar months) causes the 1st day of the 7th month to fall 21 or 22 days before the autumnal equinox, thus placing most of the eight days of Tabernacles into the summer season instead of the autumn, as a harvest festival (Lev. 23:39).

Why does the current Jewish calendar start some years in winter?

Jewishencyclopedia.com

“Hillel determined to provide an authorized calendar for all time to come, though by so doing he severed the ties which united the Jews of the Diaspora to their mother country and to the patriarchate.

The emperor Julian showed himself particularly gracious to Hillel, whom he honored on many occasions. In an autograph letter to him, Julian assured him of his friendship and promised to ameliorate further the condition of the Jews. Before setting out for the war with Persia, Julian addressed to the Jewish congregations a circular letter in which he informed them that he had “committed the Jewish tax-rolls to the flames,” and that, “desiring to show them still greater favors, he has advised his brother, the venerable patriarch Julos, to abolish what was called the ‘send-tax.’”

There is much more history about the above, so why did Hillel II change to the closest to the Vernal equinox?

Clearly, it had a lot to do with the Catholic church. Read this below.

The emperor Julian the Apostate was gracious to Hillel, whom he honored on a number of occasions. In an autograph letter to him, Julian assured him of his friendship and promised to ameliorate further the condition of the Jews. Before setting out for the war with Persia, Julian addressed to the Jewish congregations a circular letter in which he informed them that he had “committed the Jewish tax-rolls to the flames,” and that, “desiring to show them still greater favors, he has advised his brother, the venerable patriarch Julos, to abolish what was called the ‘send-tax’”.

But what is that to do with his Jewish Calendar? Here is part….

For Years the Roman Catholic church looked to the Calendar of the Jews to determine when Easter should be. However from the time after the temple was destroyed, the Jews changed their calendar many times. So, Julian appointed a Jew, Hillel II to work out a calendar they could depend on.

“The commonly stated rule, that Easter Day is the first Sunday after the full moon that occurs next after the vernal equinox, is somewhat misleading because it is not a precise statement of the actual ecclesiastical rules. The actual conditions to determine the date for Easter are (1) Easter must be on a Sunday; (2) this Sunday must follow the 14th day of the paschal moon; (3) the paschal moon is that of which the 14th day (full moon) falls on or next follows the day of the vernal equinox;* and (4) the equinox is fixed in the calendar as March 21. Easter can never occur before March 22 or later than April 25.” *

The Catholic church…. Notice…

The church based in Rome changed from determining the Passover from the first Holy Day of Unleavened Bread as succeeding the equinox to the time frame where Easter was the first Sunday following the Paschal Moon (i.e. the Full Moon of 15 Nisan). The New Moon could occur before the equinox, but the Full Moon could not fall before the equinox. Thus, 14 Nisan might fall on the equinox but 15 Nisan could not fall on the equinox.

So, Hillel II wrote his calendar that brings that to pass, by selecting the New Moon closest to the VE, not before. That assures the Catholic church of having their Easter when they wanted. He was rewarded by “committing the Jewish tax-rolls to the flames”.

“The Easter controversy raged in the early Church and still exists between the

Western and Eastern churches. The final conditions arrived at in the West are that Easter must be kept on the Sunday after the paschal moon (the calendar moon whose fourteenth day falls on or after the vernal equinox), reckoned from the day of the new moon inclusive” (The Encyclopedia of Religion, (MACMILLAN, 1987, ed. Mircea Eliade), Vol 10, p. 86).

Beginning of the Month


New Moon

H2320

chôdesh

1) the new moon, month, monthly

1a) the first day of the month

1b) the lunar month

from H2318

H2318

חדשׁ châdash

BDB Definition:

1) to be new, renew, repair

Chet – wall, separation

vav- connecting

dalet- door, path

Shin- consume

Literally new moon-chodesh means the separation, and connecting together of the cycle/pathway of the consuming (moon).

Chodesh comes from the parent root

The moon is only be united at two points. When it is completely dark, or when it is completely full of light.

New moon conjunction occurs ever 29 days 12 hours 33 min 2.8 sec -moon phases are similar to a watch, in constant motion.

The precedent of Scriptural beginnings occur in the dark.

Creation began in darkness

Gen 1:1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth;

Gen 1:2 and the earth being without form and empty, and darkness on the face of the deep, and the Spirit of God moving gently on the face of the waters,

Gen 1:3 then God said, Let light be! And there was light.

Day begins in dark

Gen 1:5 And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day.

Sabbath begins in the dark

Neh 13:19 And it came to pass, that when the gates of Jerusalem began to be dark before the sabbath, I commanded that the gates should be shut, and charged that they should not be opened till after the sabbath:

Life starts in the dark

Psa 139:13 For thou hast possessed my reins: thou hast covered me in my mother’s womb.

Psalm 81 is the only Biblical basis for establishing when the new moon occurs. There is no Scripture reference of sighting the crescent.

Psa 81:3 (81:4) תקעו בחדשׁ שׁופר בכסה ליום חגנו׃

Psa 81:3 Blow in the month a trumpet, In the new moon (keseh), at the day of our festival,

Targum Psalm 81

4. Blow the horn in the month of Tishri, in the month in which the day of our festivals is concealed.

In the apocryphal book of Enoch this concept is spoken of as well.

Enoc 78:1 And now, my son Mathusala, I have shown you everything; and the account of every ordinance of the stars of heaven is finished.

2 He showed me every ordinance respecting these, which takes place at all times and in all seasons under every influence, in all years, at the arrival and under the rule of each, during every month and every week. He showed me also the decrease of the moon, which is effected in the sixth gate; for in that sixth gate is its light consumed.

3 From this is the beginning of the month; and its decrease is effected in the sixth gate in its period, until a hundred and seventy-seven days are completed; according to the mode of calculation by weeks, twenty-five weeks and two days.

KJV version

Psa 81:3 Blow up the trumpet in the new moon (chodesh),

in the time appointed,

H3677

כּסה כּסא

kese’ keseh

keh’-seh, keh’-seh

Apparently from H3680; properly fulness or the full moon, that is, its festival: – (time) appointed.

H3680

כּסה

kâsâh

kaw-saw’

A primitive root; properly to plump, that is, fill up hollows; by implication to cover (for clothing or secrecy): – clad self, close, clothe, conceal, cover (self), (flee to) hide, overwhelm. Compare H3780

H3780

כּשׂה

kâśâh

kaw-saw’

A primitive root; to grow fat (that is, be covered with flesh): – be covered

The Talmud, Sanhedrin 11b, indicates about Tehillim (Psalm) 81:3-4:

Tehillim (Psalm) 81:3 Blow the horn at the new moon, at the covering of the moon our feast day.

Now on which feast is the moon covered? We must say on the New Year (Rosh HaShana – Yom Teruah – Feast of Trumpets). And it is thereupon written:

Tehillim (Psalm) 81:4 For this is a statute for Israel, a judgment of the God of Jacob.

on our solemn feast day.

The only other time keseh is used in the Scriptures

Pro 7:20 He hath taken a bag of money with him, and will come home at the day appointed (keseh).

John Gill’s Commentary on Proverbs 7:20

and will come home at the day appointed; and not before: Aben Ezra interprets it, at the beginning of the month, at the new moon, when the moon is covered (b),

Targum calls it the day of the congregation; some fixed festival day, when the congregation meets together; and at such a festival, or appointed time, this good man had fixed for his return, and when, and not before, he would.

(b) ליום הכסא “in die plenae lunae”, V. L. Michaelis; “novilunii”, so some in Vatablus, Piscator; “ad diem interlunii”, Cocceius, Schultens.

Keil and Delitzsch on Psalm 81:3

K&D

Concerning כּסה (Pro_7:20 כּסא) tradition is uncertain. The Talmudic interpretation (B. Rosh ha-Shana 8b, Betza 16a, and the Targum which is taken from it), according to which it is the day of the new moon (the first of the month), on which the moon hides itself,

John Gill commentary on Psalm 81:3

Psa 81:3 – Blow up the trumpet in the new moon,…. Either in every new moon, or first day of the month, which was religiously observed by the Jews, 2Ki_4:23 or rather the new moon, or first day of the seventh month, the month Tisri, which day was a memorial of blowing of trumpets, Lev_23:34, and so the Targum,

“blow the trumpet in the month of Tisri,”

in the time appointed; so Aben Ezra, Jarchi, and Kimchi, interpret the word of a set fixed time; see Pro_7:20, the word (a) used has the signification of covering; and the former of these understand it of the time just before the change of the moon, when it is covered, which falls in with the former phrase; and so the Targum,

“in the moon that is covered;”

though the Latin interpreter renders it,

“in the month which is covered with the days of our solemnities,”

there being many festivals in the month of Tisri; the blowing of trumpets on the first day of it, the atonement on the tenth, and the feast of tabernacles on the fifteenth. But De Dieu has made it appear, from the use of the word in the Syriac language, that it should be rendered “in the full moon”, and so directs to the right understanding of the feast next mentioned;

(a) בכסה “quum tegitur luna”, Piscator; “ad verbum in obtectione”, i. e. “eum obtegatur luna a sole”, Amama.

כסה Kasah is the exact same Hebrew word as Keseh, only with different vowel pointings. It is translated as concealed, hidden, covered etc.

Pro 12:23 A wise man conceals (kasah) knowledge, but the heart of fools calls out their folly.

The Targum on Numbers 28:14 and the New Moon

This burnt sacrifice shall be offered at the beginning of every month in the time of the removal of the beginning of every month in the year; and one kid of the goats, for a sin offering before the Lord at the disappearing (failure) of the moon, with the perpetual burnt sacrifice shalt thou perform with its libation.

Rashi

The beginning of the lunar month occurs at the moment of conjunction between the sun and the moon; i.e. at the moment when the position of the moon is exactly between the earth and the sun. At this point, termed as the molad, or “birth”, the moon is not visible from the earth. At least six hours must pass before a very small portion of the moon will reappear. The day on which this occurs is regarded as the first day of the new month. (Rashi)

Hillel the Elder

Hillel the elder 10 bc reinstituted conjunction observance

It is a well-known fact, for instance, that the First Mikdash was destroyed in 586 BCE and the Second Mikdash was consecrated in 516 BCE, and destroyed in 70 CE. The Second Mikdash, therefore, stood 585 years (not 586), while according to Jewish chronology, it stood only 420 years (See Yoma 9a and Yerushalmi Megilah I, 12).

After the Babylonian captivity the Jews carried back with them the Babylonian solar/lunar calendar and used it to determine the dates for high Holy Days.

But at the time when the Messiah was born a man came on the scene and later started a school. His name was Hillel the Elder. Not to be confused with Hillel II who changed the calendar to what we have now with all the postponments.

A study of this man is enlightening. His writing is very much like the Messiah in many ways. In particular the scriptures about the Beatitudes. His views were very much like the Messiah.

The decree of establishing the Rosh Hodesh on the basis of calculations which are unconnected to the appearance of the moon was enacted by the Rabbanite, Hillel the Elder. The method was guarded as a secret to keep the people from knowing about the change and therefore was called by our brothers the Rabbinites “The Secret of Intercalation” (this is testified to in many Rabbinite works, for example “Magid Harakia`” p.35).

Twinkling of an eye

Psa 72:7 In His days the righteous shall flourish (bud, fly)*, and plenty of peace, till the moon is not (when there is no moon).

*Pointing to the resurrection…Yom Teruahclick here

1Co 15:52 In a moment, in a glance of an eye, at the last trumpet; for a trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised incorruptible, and we shall all be changed.

Rabbi Eliezer describes the molad(conjunction) as a “twinkling of an eye” in Rabbi Eliezer-The Course of the Moon p55

The Hebrew word for blink is ‘patah’ from the root ‘pat’.

The root word comes from ‘pat’ which is the word for a woman’s privy. This links to the first birth, blinking/awakening (picture of resurrection) is linked to the 2nd birth.

Another amazing link to the 2nd birth/birth of the manchild of Revelation 12 is seen Isaiah 8

Isa 8:18 Behold, I and the children (Messiah & His Body) whom YHWH has given to me are for signs and wonders (mophat) in Israel from YHWH of Hosts, who dwells in Mount Zion.

On a deeper level, this link between birth/resurrection and the molad/conjunction is seen at Golgotha during the crucifixion of Messiah. The sun was darkened (Luke 23:45). In the natural, the sun is only darkened during a solar eclipse which can only occur during the conjunction between the sun and moon. It is at this time, when the sun was darkened that the bride of Messiah was born. Just as Eve came forth from the side of Adam when he slept (death), so too the bride of Messiah came forth from His side when blood and water fell at Calvary.

On an even deeper level, this link between the molad/conjunction and birth/rebirth is seen in the word ‘chodesh’ which means renewal and is applied to the new moon/month. Chodesh comes from ‘chad.’

Chad/Echad means unity and is the picture of 2 becoming one. This happens when a man and woman come together and ‘know’ each other. This is connected with the new moon and the sun and moon coming together to become ‘one.’ The Hebrew word for the male privy is arak which is the same word for the shaft of the Menorah. On a deeper level this shows that light going into darkness is when ‘chad’ takes place. Further illustrating this is the word menorah itself. It comes from the Hebrew word ner which is seen when farmers plow their fields in order to plant seed. The ground that is broken up is saturated with water and the light that reflects from the sun is what ner means. Again light comes forth from darkness as is seen in Gen 1 and in the moon cycles. The seed is planted in the earth, which is likened to a womb according to David in Psalm 137. On another level this represents being born againclick here. The biblical definition of being born again begins when He plants His seed (His Word) in our hearts. The seed must die and be born again into a new creature. This is what baptism is about, we descend into darkness to begin our new lives and come forth again. The new moon begins at darkness then light comes forth 1-3 days later. Messiah resurrected after 3 days, His people resurrect after 3 days (Hos 6). Messiah speaks of the seed dying as a picture of resurrection (John 12:24) and Shaul connects this as well (1 Cor 15).

Molad

Maimonides states that: “the new moon is defined as the ‘moment in which the sun and moon, in their uniform motion, become conjoined in a certain part of the sky, which occurs in the same way everywhere in different areas” (Sanctification of the New Moon, Bk 3, trtse. 8, p. 89, ch 6).

Rosh Hashana 20b

Samuel said: I am quite able to make a calendar for the whole of the Diaspora. Said Abbat the father of R. Simlai to Samuel: Does the Master know [the meaning] of this remark which occurs in [the Baraitha known as] the secret of the Calendar? ‘If the new moon is born before midday or after midday’? – He replied: I do not. He then said to him: Since the Master does not know this, there must also be other things which the Master does not know. When R. Zera went up [to Palestine], he sent back word to them [in Babylon]: It is necessary that there should be [on New Moon] a night and a day of the new moon. This is what Abba the father of R. Simlai meant: ‘We calculate [according to] the new moon’s birth. If it is born before midday, then certainly it will have been seen shortly before sunset. If it was not born before midday, certainly it will not have been seen shortly before sunset’. What is the practical value of this remark? —-R. Ashi said: To [help us in] confuting the witnesses.

The molad emtzai (average molad, used for the traditional Hebrew calendar) is based on a constant interval cycle that is widely but incorrectly regarded as an approximation of the time in Jerusalem of the mean lunar conjunction. Each molad moment occurs exactly 29 days 12 hours 44 minutes and 3+1/3 seconds after the previous molad moment. This interval is numerically exactly the same as the length of the mean synodic month that was published by Ptolemy in the Almagest. Although this interval quite closely approximates the average time between lunar conjunctions, in the present era it is about 3/5 second too long.

The traditional epoch of the cycle was 5 hours 11 minutes and 20 seconds after the mean sunset (considered to be 6 hours before midnight) at the epoch of the Hebrew calendar (first eve of Tishrei of Hebrew year 1).

The molad amiti (true molad), which has no relevance to the Hebrew calendar, is the time at which the actual astronomical lunar conjunction occurs, often expressed either as the mean solar time in Jerusalem (Universal Time + 2h 20m 56s or simply + 2h 21m) or as the clock time in Israel. If the moment is desired for ritual or social purposes then it may be best to express it in terms of the local clock time.

“Môlêd is a Hebrew word meaning renewal, rejuvenescence. It would be properly applied to the phase of the moon at the instant of time when her Conjunction with the Sun takes place. It is, however, commonly used not for the actual time of New Moon, but for the computed time, which governs the commencement of each year and of each Cycle…The length of a Lunation, as adopted by the founders of the present permanent calendar, is a constant quantity, whereas the Lunations of the true Moon are variable in their duration. The Moon of the Jewish Calendar is a mean or average Moon moving uniformly, in the same way as the artificial Moon of Hilarius [i.e., the “moon” (molad) of the CRC is likewise artificial], which is used in the Julian and Gregorian Calendars.” (S.B. Burnaby, “Elements of the Jewish and Muhammadan Calendars”, London: George Bell & Sons, 1901, p.40)

“The moment that the moon passes between the Earth and the sun is called the Molad – the birth of the moon. It is the theoretical beginning of the new month” [10] (Understanding the Jewish Calendar, Rabbi Nathan Bushwick, pp.39-40 –emphasis mine)

Awake the dawn

History declares that ancient man was able to accurately calculate the phases of the new moon to know when the conjunction was. However, it is very easy to see when the new moon is by looking into the sky just before dawn at the beginning of the month. As the light of the moon fades one can see the last sliver of the waning crescent just before the sun rises. The next day the moon is not visible, it can then be known that first day of the month will begin that evening. This is how David could declare that ‘tomorrow is the new moon.’ (1 Samuel 20:5).

Interestingly, the word for ‘tomorrow’ in Hebrew is ‘machar.’ ‘Machar’ is a combination of the word ‘char’ which means the burning heat of the sun.  Mem is the letter for water.  Literally, ‘machar’/tomorrow means when the sun goes into the water.  This is what happens everyday when the sun sets in the West, where the mediterrean sea is located.  The word for ‘west’ in Hebrew is ‘yam’ which means the sea.

The Scriptures link awaking at dawn and the calendar.

Psalm 81 links praising the Most High with the new moon.

Psa 81:1 To the chief Musician upon Gittith, A Psalm of Asaph. Sing aloud unto God our strength: make a joyful noise unto the God of Jacob.

Psa 81:2 Take a psalm, and bring hither the timbrel, the pleasant harp with the psaltery.

Psa 81:3 Blow up the trumpet in the new moon, in the time appointed, on our solemn feast day.

Praising the Most High is connected to awaking at dawn.

Psa 108:1 A Song. A Psalm of David. O God, my heart is fixed; I will sing; yea, I will sing songs even with my glory.

Psa 108:2 Awake, harp and lyre! I will awake early (Heb. ‘shachar’ – dawn);

Psa 57:8 Wake up my glory! Wake up, harp and lyre! I will stir the morning dawn with praise.

Man awaking at dawn is the natural way of things and is connected to the calendar and movement of the heavenly bodies.

Psa 104:19 He made the moon for seasons; the sun knows its going down.

Psa 104:20 You put darkness, and it is night; in it all the forest animals creep.

Psa 104:21 The young lions roar for prey, and to seek their food from God.

Psa 104:22 The sun rises; they are gathered, and go to their dens to lie down.

Psa 104:23 Man goes out to his work, and to his labor until the evening.

Calculating the new moon

How could David make these statements with such certainty?

1Sa 20:5 And David said unto Jonathan, Behold, to morrow [is] the new moon, and I should not fail to sit with the king at meat: but let me go, that I may hide myself in the field unto the third [day] at even.

Jonathan also, knew with certainty that tomorrow is the New Moon? How?

1Sa 20:18 Then Jonathan said to David, To morrow [is] the new moon: and thou shalt be missed, because thy seat will be empty.

The book of Enoch describes calculations of the heavenly bodies

Enoc 78:1 And now, my son Mathusala, I have shown you everything; and the account of every ordinance of the stars of heaven is finished.

2 He showed me every ordinance respecting these, which takes place at all times and in all seasons under every influence, in all years, at the arrival and under the rule of each, during every month and every week. He showed me also the decrease of the moon, which is effected in the sixth gate; for in that sixth gate is its light consumed.

3 From this is the beginning of the month; and its decrease is effected in the sixth gate in its period, until a hundred and seventy-seven days are completed; according to the mode of calculation by weeks, twenty-five weeks and two days.

Wis 7:14 For she is a treasure unto men that never faileth: which they that use become the friends of God, being commended for the gifts that come from learning.

Wis 7:17 For he hath given me {Solomon} certain knowledge of the things that are, namely, to know how the world was made, and the operation of the elements:

Wis 7:18 The beginning, ending, and midst of the times: the alterations of the turning of the sun, and the change of seasons:

Wis 7:19 The circuits of years, and the positions of stars:

Gemara Rosh HaShana 25a:

“Our rabbis taught: Once the heavens were covered with clouds and the likeness of the moon was seen on the 29th day of the month. The public mistakenly thought to declare the New Moon and the Sanhedrin wanted to sanctify it. Rabban Gamliel, however, said to them: I have it on the authority of my father’s father house (Hillel) that THE RENEWAL OF THE MOON TAKES PLACE NO LESS THAN EVERY TWENTY-NINE DAYS, TWELVE HOURS, TWO-THIRDS OF AN HOUR AND

SEVENTY-THREE PARTS(*).”

(*) The hour is divided into 1080 parts for easy calculation without fraction. Thus, two-thirds of an hour = 720 parts plus 73 parts = 793. In rabbinical literature the calculation is therefore given as 29 days, 12 hours and 793 parts of an hour.

8. Maimonides (Rambam) codified the Oral Tradition as recorded in the Talmud.

Rambam, Laws of Sanctification of the Month 6:2-3:

“2. The day and the night consists of 24 hours, 12 for the day and 12 for the night, in any season. THE HOUR IS DIVIDED INTO 1,080 PARTS. The reason for dividing the hour into this number of parts is that this number may be divided without a remainder by two, four, eight, three, six, nine, five, and ten, and with these denominators the fractions may again be divided into many other parts.

3. By these figures, the interval between two conjunctions of moon and sun according to their mean motion is 29 DAYS AND 12 HOURS OF THE 30th DAY, BEGINNING WITH THE NIGHT OF THIS DAY, AND 793 PARTS OF THE 13th HOUR. THAT IS THE TIME WHICH ELAPSES BETWEEN OME (MEAN) CONJUNCTION AND THE OTHER, AND THAT IS THE DURATION OF THE LUNAR MOON.”

9. According to the Oral Torah which was handed by the Sages, the time between one New Moon and the next is 29 days, 12 hours and 793 parts of an hour.

793

—- = (0.734259) = (0.03059)

1080—–Hours———Days

If we add 29.5 days, we receive a total of 29.53059 days.

10. According to NASA, the length of the “synodic month”, i.e. The time between one New Moon and the next, is 29.530588 days. The difference between this figure and that used by the Sages is .0000006, or sixth millionth of a day.

To achieve that astronomical accuracy NASA had to fly very

sophisticated instruments to the space, free of

atmospheric interference.

“…the present Jewish calendar originated in Babylon during the period of the Gaons—the religious leaders who dominated academia as heads of various Babylonian academies (Ency. of Religion and Ethics, s.v. “Calendar”). One of the Gaons asserted that the existing calendar system was of great antiquity and the new moons and festivals had always been established by calculation. His view was that the observation of the moon had not been put to use until the third century BC, its purpose to demonstrate the accuracy of calculation, this, in order to refute dissenters. His view was that calculation and observation had always agreed. His arguments were soundly repudiated by both Karaites and Talmudists on the basis of Talmudic records (ibid).” (The Hebrew Calendar: Is It Reliable?, Bethel Church of GOD 1999; slightly reworded from: Church of God, The Eternal’s article of the same title from 1994)

Time

As mentioned above, the Hebrew words used in reference to time further reveal that time is linked to the movement of the heavenly bodies.

עת

עת (et) which pictographically means to ‘see the cross’, and in ancient Hebrew thinking meant to ‘see the mark.’ What is this ‘mark’? It is the sun setting (death) and rising (resurrection) above the horizonclick here.

Going back to the word עת.

‘Et’ is also related to speaking.

This word is only used one time in Scripture.

Isa 50:4 The Lord GOD hath given me the tongue of the learned (Heb. limmud – disciple), that I should know how to speak (עות) a word in season to him that is weary: he wakeneth morning by morning, he wakeneth mine ear to hear as the learned.

The above verse has amazing connections to the current study. To begin with, the ‘learned’ here is the Hebrew word ‘limmud’ which is the Hebrew word for a disciple. A disciple is one who is yoked to His Master and walking with Him. This is the meaning of the word ‘signs’ in Genesis 1:14.

‘He wakeneth morning by morning’. This is pointing to the rising of the sun each day which is a picture of the resurrection. ‘He wakeneth/opens mine ear’ is also a link to this. Psalm 40:6 speaks of the Messiah as having His ears opened but then in Hebrews 10:5 this verse is quoted speaking of Him being given a body. The opening of the ears and the new body (resurrection) is clearly seen in 1 Thessalonians 4:16 as mentioned above in reference to the twinkling of the eye (molad).

עת corresponds to the Greek word καιρός (kairos) through comparing Daniel 7:25 & Revelation 12:6, 14.

In the Septuagint, kairos is used to translate numerous words but one of which is very interesting. The word ‘tor’ due to its relation to the concept of ‘the mark.’

From this root we get ta’ar and to’ar. These words mean form, outline or border.

‘Toar’ is from the same root ‘tor’ as Torah

Paul equates the heavens with the Torah/Word (Romans 10:16-18 = Psalm 19)

The sun and time

The word for hour is related to the sun

This comes from the root ‘שע’ which is a picture of a shepherd watching over his flock. ‘Sha’ is also the root of the word Yeshua.

The word for day is associated with the sun

The word for tomorrow is related to the sun

Another word relating time and the sun is “pa’am”

How does the rhythmic beating of a drum relate to the sun? The human heartbeat.

At sunrise the sky appears red

This word comes from ‘dam’ meaning blood.

‘Dam’ literally means waters from the door. As in the living waters that come forth from the Temple, or the living waters of blood that come forth from the heart. The sun moving through the zodiac is also a picture of this. Psalm 19 speaks of the sun following the path of the zodiac and coming forth from ‘his canopy’ representing the Temple. A healthy heart pumps on average 72 times a minute, the sun moves a degree through the ecliptic every 72 years. It seems that the beating of the human heart corresponds with the movement of the sun through the ecliptic.

http://davidpratt.info/pattern1.htm#p1

The ‘circle’ traced by the earth’s axis around the north ecliptic pole is not smooth but wavy, as the moon’s gravitational pull causes the earth to ‘nod’ about once every 18 years (currently 18.6 years), a movement known as nutation. The circle therefore contains about 1440 waves, since 18 x 1440 = 25,920. Note that the average human heartbeat is equal to 72 beats a minute, and on average we breathe about 18 times a minute. 72 years (= 6+60+6 or 6×12) is said to be the ‘ideal’ lifespan of a human being, during which time the sun moves through one degree of the zodiac in the precessional cycle. A human breathes 72 times in 4 minutes, the time required for the earth to turn 1 degree on its axis. In 24 hours (86,400 seconds) we breathe 18 x 1440 = 25,920 times, equal to the number of years in the precessional cycle.

According to the National Geographic’s ‘Incredible Human Machine’ it takes 72 muscles for man to speak. The Hebrew word for time, עת, means to see the mark. What is the mark? It is when the sun rises directly east (qedem ‘sun of blood’) at the time of the tequphah which literally means the ‘sun speaks.’

According to Ecclesiastes 1:5-6, the sun moves upon the wind/ruach again linking to the blood which flows through the human body and the living waters which flow forth from the throne of Elohim.

The path of the sun through the zodiac comes from the following Hebrew word:

According to the Revelation 22:1-2, the river of life that comes forth from the throne of Elohim, is linked to 12 fruits of the tree of life.

The word for the constellations/zodiac in Hebrew is ‘mazzaroth’ which traces back to the Hebrew word nazar.

What was on the crown of the High Priest? The sacred name of YHWH (Exodus 29:6; 39:30) According to Josephus (Wars of the Jews Book 5 Chapter 5 Section 7) the sacred name consisted of 4 vowels which are pronounced with our breath. The Hebrew word for ‘name,’ is ‘shem’ which means breath/wind. It is the root for the word ‘shamayim’ which means heaven. ‘Shem’ is also the root of the word ‘shemesh’ which means the sun. Every breath we take we are proclaiming His Name. Each breath we take brings oxygen into our lungs which brings life to our blood and to our cells.

Further linking the idea of rivers and time is the word ‘yovel’ which is commonly translated as Jubilee which occurs every 50 years. This is related to the trumpet of Jubilee as the horn is seen in the Hebrew as a flowing of air likened unto the flowing of water.

The Hebrew word ‘shaq’ also links to the above concept as ‘shaq’ is the word for river/drink.

This course/highway of the stars is seen in the book of Judges.

Jdg 5:20 The stars fought from the heavens; from their courses they fought with Sisera.

Back to pa’am.

Pa’am also means footsteps and is used in the Scriptures in reference to walking in His paths.

Exo 23:17 Three times (pa’am) in the year every one of your males shall appear before the Lord YHWH.

Psa 85:13 Righteousness shall go before Him and shall make a way for His footsteps (paam).

Psa 119:133 Fix my steps (paam) in Your Word; and let no evil rule over me.

Psa 17:5 My steps* have kept in Your tracks (ma’agal) so that my strides (paam) have not slipped.

*The word here is ‘asher’ and is related to the Elijah messageclick here and making His paths straight (asher) (Isaiah 40:3; 57:14; 62:10-11). It is linked with restoring the corrects paths (Isaiah 58:12 – Job 38:5).

Psa 17:5 My steps (ashur) have kept in Your tracks (ma’agal) so that my strides (paam) have not slipped.

Psa 23:3 He restores my soul; He guides me in paths (ma’agal) of righteousness for His name’s sake.

Believers are followers of the ‘Way’ click here(Acts 9:2; 16:17; 18:25-26; 19:9, 23; 24:14, 22). The word for ‘way’ in Hebrew is derekh. This comes from the root ‘rach’ which means the path of the sun.

From the root:

4 directions & the sun

East:

‘Motza’ is from the root צא, which is related to the parent root צי

This is the root word of ‘tziyon’ (Zion).

This is an interesting connection between the rising of the sun in the east and the desert. It is easy to relate the sun and the desert with the hot sands of the desert and the blazing heat. Interestingly the word for sand in Hebrew is ‘chol’ which comes from the root חל which is one of the words used in Hebrew for ‘beginning.’ Another word used for beginning comes from the word above ‘motza’ which, in the feminine form, means a beginning or origin. This is brought to light because it is said that YHWH rides upon the skies/desert (arabah).

Psa 68:4 Sing to God, sing praise to His name; lift up a song for Him who rides in the deserts (KJV ‘heavens’), by His name Yah; yea, exult in His presence.

The word deserts/heavens in the above verse is ‘arabah’

South:

West:

Another word for west is ‘sea’, because the rising of the sun is to the east in the land of Israel, so the direction of west is where the Mediterranean Sea is.

As seen above, this is the root of the word ‘yom,’ which means day.

North:

שׂמאל / שׂמאול

śemô’l / śem’ôl

BDB Definition:

1) the left, the left hand, the left side

1a) left

1b) left hand

1c) north (as one faces east)

Time & Distance

The word for ‘forever’ in Hebrew is related to distance.

http://www.ancient-hebrew.org/27_eternity.html

In the ancient Hebrew words that are used to described distance and direction are also used to describe time. The Hebrew word for east is qedem and literally means “the direction of the rising sun”. We use north as our major orientation such as in maps which are always oriented to the north. While we use the north as our major direction the Hebrews used the east and all directions are oriented to this direction. For example one of the words for south is teyman from the root yaman meaning “to the right”. The word qedem is also the word for the past. In the ancient Hebrew mind the past is in front of you while the future is behind you, the opposite way we think of the past and future. The Hebrew word olam means in the far distance. When looking off in the far distance it is difficult to make out any details and what is beyond that horizon cannot be seen. This concept is the olam. The word olam is also used for time for the distant past or the distant future as a time that is difficult to know or perceive. This word is frequently translated as eternity or forever but in the English language it is misunderstood to mean a continual span of time that never ends. In the Hebrew mind it is simply what is at or beyond the horizon, a very distant time. A common phrase in the Hebrew is “l’olam va’ed” and is usually translated as “forever and ever” but in the Hebrew it means “to the distant horizon and again” meaning “a very distant time and even further” and is used to express the idea of a very ancient or future time.

….O’lam can mean distant past or distant future but has the same idea of beyond the horizon. L’olam va’ed literally means beyond the horizon and again.

Measuring of the Heavens is connected with time.

Isa 40:12 He who has measured in His hand the waters and the heavens by a span* meted out; and enclosed in the measure the dust of the earth, and weighed in the balance the mountains, and the hills in the scales,

*H2239

זרת

zereth

BDB Definition:

1) span

1a) a unit of measure, approx half-cubit, or the distance from the thumb to the little finger on an outstretched hand

The Breastplate of the High priest was measured with a ‘zereth’/span.

Exo 28:16 It shall be square, being doubled, its length a span and its width a span.

Isa 48:13 Mine hand also hath laid the foundation of the earth, and my right hand hath spanned the heavens: when I call unto them, they stand up together.

International standard Bible Encyclopedia

Handbreadth

hand´bredth (טפח, ṭephaḥ, טפח, ṭōphaḥ, 1Ki_7:26; 2Ch_4:5; Psa_39:5; Exo_25:25; Exo_37:12; Eze_40:5, Eze_40:43; Eze_43:13): A Hebrew linear measure containing 4 fingers, or digits, and equal to about 3 inches.

The hand has been used for thousands of years to measure degrees in the heavens/expanse. Each person’s hand will measure the same distances when the arm is stretched out, no matter how large your hand, or what your age.

You can tell how long until the sun will set by measuring its distance from the horizon. The sun moves about 15 degrees across the sky in an hour. Moving 15 degrees an hour for 24 hours would equal 360 degrees, or a full day from sunset to sunset. This measuring of the hours points us to Messiah.

Joh 11:9 Jesus answered, Are there not twelve hours in the day? If anyone walks in the day, he does not stumble because he sees the light of the world.

The Temple & Time

Isa 57:15 For so says the high and lofty One who inhabits eternity {עד}, and His name is Holy: I dwell in the high and holy place, even with the contrite and humble of spirit; to make live the spirit of the humble and to make live the heart of the contrite ones.

Eternity in this verse is from:

This is the root of the word ‘moed’ (feast) which is an appointment that is related time and again.

His Name is linked with Time

The Temple was a place for His Name (1 Kings 5:5; 8:29; Jeremiah 7:12) A place where Eternity could manifest in the time-space continuum.

Temple at the Center of Time – David Flynn pg 51

“[Isaac] Newton’s fluency in ancient Greek, Hebrew and Latin helped him a great deal, granting him understanding that the word ‘temple’ was related to ‘time.’

For example ‘ temple in Latin has the meaning: [tempus, tempor, time.] [templum, a space marked out, a building dedicated to a god, temple.] [tempora pl., the fitting or appointed time]

This is confirmed in the Hebrew. One of the names of the Tabernacle is ‘ohel moed’ which is translated as tent of meeting or the tabernace of the congregation. Ohel means tent and moed means appointed time.

The root meaning of mo’ed is to repeat or do again. It is a cyclical word. Moed is many times translated as ‘feast’ and not surprisingly the other Hebrew word for feast, ‘chag’ means a circle.

Temple at the Center of Time pg 16-17

The revolution of science that Newton single-handedly achieved in Principia was primarily that the laws of motion and gravity, and the nature of space and time, had not manifested apart from his belief in the immutable truths of the Bible. From its pages, Newton found the path towards discovery in the natural universe. By his own words, the Bible was his source of inspiration for every theory that he conceived.

“Newton believed that the code of civil and religious truth that God gave to Moses on Mount Sinai also contained the physical laws of creation. Because the central focus of the Torah was the ‘Ark of the Law’ and later the temple that housed it, Newton reasoned that the unifying theory of dimension should also be contained within both.”

Temple at the Center of Time pg 46

“Newton held the divine dimensions within the Temple of Solomon equal with the physical order of God’s creation, an order that was preserved in the length of the sacred cubit. Newton included statements of the temple’s design in context with the form and fulfillment of prophecy in his work Lexicon Propheticum (Dictionary of Prophecy), in which he says, ‘This structure commends itself by the utmost simplicity and harmony of all its proportions.’”

“In the late 1500s, the Spanish Jesuits Hieronymo Prado and his student Juan Bautista Villalpando wrote Explanationes in Ezechielem, in which he described the dimensions of Ezekiel’s temple in relations to the platonic structure of music, the order of the heavens and the design of creation. This work brought into focus the Renaissance ide of the temple as a microcosm of God’s creation, embodying the order of the universe.”

Temple at the Center of Time pg 52

David Flynn quotes the Maharal “HaMakom V’HaZman Echad Hu”, Time and Space are One.

Maimonides in Guide to the Perplexed stated:

“Time is an accident consequent upon motion and is necessarily attached to it. Neither of them exists without the other. Motions does not exist except in time, and time cannot be conceived by the intellect except together with motion. And all that with regard to which no motion can be found, does not fall under time.”

Navigation on the waters

Temple at the Center of Time pg 65-67

“From the greatest antiquity, the art of navigation has demonstrated a link between the heavens and earth. On the sea and in deserts without changing horizons, the sun, moon, and stars are the only reliable guides. The angle of the North star above the horizon reveals the latitude of the observer. Howerver, the calculation of longitude (location east or west of a fixed point) is based on the precise timing of the sun or stars at their zenith (highest point in their travel across the sky). Both latitude and longitude are based on 360 degrees in a circle and the number of minutes and seconds in an hour (60).”

“In the New Testament, the Greek word naus means both a ‘center of the temple’ where the Ark stood in the Holy of Holies (Matthew 23:17) and ‘ship’ (Acts 27:41)….Naus is also the origin for the word nautical. Greek nau-tes which is related to the Hebrew word navta meaning ‘to stretch out’, ‘to move or travel’ and even a ‘measuring line,’ found in Job 38:5, Isaiah 44:13, and Lamentations 2:8″

“In nautical terms, time and distance are related. The speed that a ship travels across the water is the ‘knot,’ which is defined as on nautical mile per hour. The number of degrees of travel determines nautical miles over the Earth multiplied by 60 minutes in an hour. Distance in these dgrees is calibrated using the terms ‘arc minutes’ and ‘arc seconds.’ This is, of course, due to the curvature of the Earth.”

As seen above, the Holy of Holies is called a ‘naus’ in Greek. In Hebrew it is ‘debir’ (1 Kings 6:5). Debir = the Word.

Temple at the Center of Time pg 91

“Motion cannot exist without time. Time does not exist without motion. The laws of space, gravity, and time bind us in our reality.

Temple at the Center of Time pg 102

“Nautical miles are based on the ration of degrees in a circle to minutes in an hour. The 360 degree circle and the 60 minute hour have existed from the birth of civilization. Each degree of the great circle of the Earth equals 60 nautical miles. the circumference of the earth is therefore 21,600 miles (360 x 60). This is related to the value of the common cubit, which is 21.60 inches.

The Cubit

The Cubit follows the Fibonacci pattern

The cubit’s connection to this study is fascinating. The themes before mentioned line up with the meaning of this word. The strong waters. Binding (gravity). The arm (right arm who created the universe and stretched for the heavens).

As seen above, ‘amon’ refers to Messiah. The Master craftsman beside the Father (Proverbs 8:30) He is the Arm of YHWH, who measures and spreads forth the universe.

Temple at the Center of Time pg 81

“Newton’s book A Dissertation upon the Sacred Cubit of the Jews was written during his work on gravitation. He believed that the sacred cubit would give him an accurate value of the diameter of the earth, a value needed for his calculations of gravity and calculus that he employed in Principia.”

Temple at the Center of Time pg 84-85

“The Israelite’s cubit in the time of Moses until Solomon was equal to 25.20 modern inches.”

Flanders Petrie in his study of ancient calibration called ‘Inductive Metrology’ pg 67 stated that the sacred cubit (25.20 inches) was the standard for all other measures including the British inch.

Interestingly, the Right Hand of YHWH that created and stretched forth/measured the Heavens is connected to this 25.20 number. In the handwriting on the wall in the book of Daniel the following Hebrew words were written.

Dan 5:25 And this is the writing that was written: A MINA, A MINA, A SHEKEL, AND HALF MINAS.

Dan 5:26 This is the meaning of the thing: A MINA: God has numbered your kingdom and finished it.

Dan 5:27 A SHEKEL: You are weighed in the balances and found lacking.

Dan 5:28 HALF MINAS: Your kingdom is divided and given to the Medes and Persians.

Temple at the Center of Time pg 42

“MENE MENE TEKEL UPARSIN, were actually monetary values. These are described as the standards of weight for use in Ezekiel’s future temple in Jerusalem {Ezekiel 45:12}: ‘And the shekel (TEKEL) shall be twenty gerahs: twenty shekels, five and twenty shekels, fifteen shekels, shall be your maneh (MINAH).’ The numeric quantity represented were units of ancient Chaldean weights and measures.

The gerah was the smallest proportion of weight used in Babylonian commerce at the time. Mene (1,000 gerahs), Mene (1,000 gerahs, Tekel (20 gerahs), and Peres, to divide the Mene (500 gerahs) equals 2,520.”

Temple at the Center of Time pg 86-87

“The ancient Jewish sages maintained that time and space were of the same distinction, implying that they mirror each other in shape….the pattern of both, according to the Law of God, is based on the number 2,520 and its fractal in the sacred cubit, 25.20.

It is significant that this number, encoded in the writing of the wall, manifested through the agency of a ‘hand,’ maintains the ancient metaphor of the ‘finger or hand of God’ working His will in the material universe.

However, it is the arm that extends the hand and fingers. These work to execute the will, to create, write, and even make war. The cubit was directly representative of these functions, and was the linear standard of all creation. James Strong (1822-1894), professor of biblical literature and exegetical theology at Troy University, further explained this concept:

‘In the figurative idiom of the Hebrew its name is characteristically amah, which is merely a variation of the word em, a mother, not so much because the forearm is the mother of the entire arm, but because the cubit (or ulna) is the ‘mother,’ as it were, of all dimensions whether in the human body or elsewhere.’”

“In his Prolegomena to a Lexicon propheticumhe, Newton lists the Sacred Cubit as 7 palms… The 7-palm cubit would stand out as sacred due to its relation to the number 7. Seven is the only number that does not divide evenly into 360. The sacred number, 2,520, (100 times the sacred cubit) is also the result of 360 x 7.”

The division of the day, from sunset to sunset, is the course of the sun moving in a circle around the earth (360 degrees). A week is 7 times 360 which is 2,520. This number points to the kingdom of Heaven in that 7 days corresponds to the 7,000 year plan of Elohim. This will be discussed in more detail in the future, Yah willing. The fall of Babylon and Belshazzar’s demise is related to the fall of Jericho where Yisrael was commanded to go around it’s wall’s in a specific way related to this 7 day prophetic picture.

Temple at the Center of Time pg 117

“There is far more significance to this story. It is a lesson of the divine proportion.

Joshua 6:3 says, ‘You shall compass the city…and go round about the city once. Thus shalt thou do six days.’

The six-fold compassing of Jericho yields and exquisite yet simple equation, and its intrinsic meaning fits the astronomical works and theories of Issac Newton.

‘Jericho,’ literally translated, means the moon (or Moon city), and is a homonym of the Hebrew word for ‘thrown down place.’

The Ark made six circles of 360 degrees around Jericho totaling 2,160 degrees….In circumscribing 2,160 degrees of Jericho with the Ark, the Israelites marked the diameter of the moon in modern statute miles. The circumference (the distance around the moon) is found by multiplying 2,160 by the number 3.14159265. This number is symbolized by the Greek letter π. 3.14159265 x 2,160 = 6,785.8401 miles.”

On the 7th day, Yisrael encompassed Jericho 7 times. 7 x 360 = 2,520. Using 2,520 and multiplying it by π, we get the diameter of the earth.

2,520 x 3.14159265 = 7,916.813 statute miles.

The East, Time, Eternity, the Universe and the Origin of All Things pg 1

http://www.ancient-hebrew.org/docs/39_brown-time.pdf

“The eastern mind is not obsessed with time as the western mind is. Anyone who has lived and worked in the near or Middle East knows that they are event oriented rather than time oriented as we westerners. Their lives are not ruled by the clock. The tenses in Hebrew and Arabic and as well in the Greek are not primarily concerned with time but rather flow or type of action.

The ancient Hebrew words that are used to describe distance and direction are also used to describe time. The Hebrew word for east is qedem and literally means “the direction of the rising sun.” The implications of this statement are astounding. This is because time, as defined as the distance between two physical events, is not a physical measurement in and of itself. Yet in ancient Hebrew, time and distance refer to the same thing and literally to “the direction of the rising sun,” (which we as human beings call the east direction). One implication of this

association would be that the origin of all things could have come, does come, and will come from the east.”

The Tabernacle & direction. The Tabernacle in Hebrew is called the ‘ohel moed.’ The tent of meeting. Moed is the word used for the cycle of Biblical feasts. Ohel comes from the root word ‘hal’ which means to look to the North star for direction.

Ohel comes from the following root:

The pictograph meaning of praise means to look toward the North Star.

The constellation Cepheus (the enthroned king) is located directly above the North star in the night sky.

CEPHUS. The king. In the Zodiac of Denderah Pe—ku—hor = this one cometh to rule. Cepheus is Greek from the Hebrew zemah = the Branch. Ethiopian name, Hyh = a king. The brightest star is Al Deramin = coming quickly. The next is Al Phirk = the Redeemer. The next, Al Rai’ = who bruises or breaks. (#Jer 31:1)

Directions & the Constellations

Job 9:7 the One speaking to the sun and it does not rise; and He sets a seal around the stars;

Job 9:8 stretching out the heavens by Himself, and walking on the waves of the sea;

Job 9:9 who made the Bear, Orion, and Pleiades, and the chambers of the south;

Kiel & Delitzsch commentary

Job next describes God as the Creator of the stars, by introducing a constellation of the northern (the Bear), one of the southern (Orion), and one of the eastern sky (the Pleiades). עָשׁ, contracted from נְעָשׁ, Arabic na‛š, a bier, is the constellation of seven stars (septentrio or septentriones) in the northern sky. The Greater and the Lesser Bear form a square, which the Arabs regarded as a bier; the three other stars, benâth n‛asch, i.e., daughters of the bier (comp. Job_38:32), seem to be the mourners. כְּסִיל is Orion chained to the sky, which the ancients regarded as a powerful giant, and also as an insolent, foolish fellow. תֵּימָן חַדְרֵי are, according to the Targ., the chambers of the constellations on the south side of the heavens, as also most expositors explain them (Mercier: sidera quae sunt in altero hemisphaerio versus alterum polum antarcticum), according to which תֵּימָן, or written defectively תֵּמָן, would therefore be equivalent to תמן כוכבי; or perhaps, in a more general meaning, the regions of the southern sky (penetralia), which are veiled, or altogether lost to view.

Adam Clarke commentary on Job 9:35

“The cardinal constellations of spring and autumn, in Job’s time, were Chimah, and Chesil or Taurus, and Scorpio; noticed Job_9:9, and again, Job_38:31, Job_38:32; of which the principal stars are, Aldebaran, the bull’s eye, and Antares, the scorpion’s heart.

Calendar

The word calendar comes from the Greek ‘kaleo’

G2564

καλέω

kaleō

Thayer Definition:

1) to call

1a) to call aloud, utter in a loud voice

1b) to invite

2) to call, i.e. to name, by name

2a) to give a name to

2a1) to receive the name of, receive as a name

2a2) to give some name to one, call his name

2b) to be called, i.e. to bear a name or title (among men)

2c) to salute one by name

Part of Speech: verb

A Related Word by Thayer’s/Strong’s Number: akin to the base of G2753

Notice that the word for calendar traces back to a Greek word which means to call out a name or to bear a name. This is what the Biblical calendar is designed to do. To proclaim the Name of Yahshua, to reveal His character by shadow pictures that are done each year during the Spring and Fall feasts which reveal His first and second comings as well as the 12 ‘signs’ of the zodiac which the sun traverses through each year which tells the gospel.

This Greek word traces back to the Hebrew word ‘qara’.

From the root:

Calling upon the Name is to reveal His presence.

YHWH proclaimed the name of YHWH whenever He physically manifested Himself to Israel

Exo 33:17 And YHWH said to Moses, This thing which you have spoken I will do. For you have found favor in My eyes, and I know you by name.

Exo 33:18 And he said, I pray, let me see Your glory.

Exo 33:19 And He said, I will cause all My goodness to pass before your face. And I will call out the name of YHWH before your face. And I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, and I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy.

Exo 33:20 And He said, You are not able to see My face; for no man can see Me and live.

Exo 33:21 And YHWH said, Behold, a place by Me! And you shall stand on a rock.

Exo 33:22 And as My glory is passing it will be that I will put you in a cleft of the rock; and I will cover My hand over you during My passing.

Exo 33:23 And I will remove My hand, and you shall see My back; but My face cannot be seen.

Exo 34:5 And YHWH came down in the cloud. And he placed himself there with Him, and he called on the name of YHWH.

Exo 34:6 And YHWH passed by before his face and called out: YHWH! YHWH God! Merciful and gracious, slow to anger, and great in goodness and truth,

Exo 34:7 keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin, and not leaving entirely unpunished, visiting the iniquity of fathers on sons, and on sons of sons, to the third and to the fourth generation.

Exo 34:8 And Moses hurried and bowed to the earth and worshiped.

Qara is the word for read, the Torah is the “physical” manifestation of YHWH on the earth. When YHWH “qara’d” He physically manifested Himself, and proclaimed who/what He is. This is what the reading of the Torah does. The Torah proclaims the Name of the Holy One, as it is said in Revelation 19, His Name (shem- character) is the Word.

This is why the Torah is read in a cyclical fashionclick here. It follows the same principle as the sun, moon and stars in their paths. The sabbaths/feasts are called ‘miqra kodesh’, usually translated as ‘holy gatherings’. Miqra, comes from the same root as ‘qara’. The sabbaths are cyclical gatherings where His people come together to ‘qara’/ call upon His name.

Calling upon His Name is linked to Salvation (Yeshua)

Psa 91:14 Because He has set His love on Me, therefore I will deliver Him; I will set Him on high because He has known My name.

Psa 91:15 He shall call on Me and I will answer Him; I will be with Him in distress; I will rescue Him and honor Him.

Psa 91:16 I will satisfy him with length of days, and will make Him see My salvation (yeshuah).

Psa 50:15 And call on Me in the day of distress, and I will save you; and you shall glorify Me.

Psa 50:23 Whoever offers thanks glorifies Me; and he who prepares a way, I will show the salvation of God to him.

Psa 18:3 I will call on YHWH, who is to be praised; and I shall be saved from my enemies.

Psa 55:16 I, even I, will call to God, and YHWH will save me.

Rom 10:13 For everyone, “whoever may call on the name of the Lord will be saved.” Joel 2:32

Act 2:21 “And it shall be that everyone who shall call on the name of the Lord will be saved.” Joel 2:28-32

For more on ‘qara’ click here: Call on the Name of YHWH

The Feasts are linked to this word ‘qara’ as they are called ‘miqra qodesh’

Lev 23:2 Speak to the sons of Israel, and you shall say to them, The appointed feasts of YHWH which you shall proclaim (qara) , holy gatherings (miqra) , shall be these: These are My appointed seasons:

The Feasts are also described as ‘chuqqim’ (statutes). (Exodus 12:14, 24, 43)

This comes from the root:

Again, notice the relation to the heavenly bodies. The book of Job further links ‘choq’ with time.

Job 14:5 Since his days are fixed, the number of his months is with You, and You have appointed his bounds (choq) , and he cannot pass over;

Jer 31:35 So says YHWH, who gives the sun for a light by day, the laws (chuqqah) of the moon, and the stars for a light by night, who stirs up the sea so that its waves roar, YHWH of Hosts is His name.

The Calendar made simple

As seen above, time is related to looking to the East. This is to keep us focused on the Most High who comes to us from the East. (Ezekiel 43:2)

The year begins at the tequfah when the sun rises due east on the horizon at Spring. The next new moon starts the new year. The new moon is found by waking up just before dawning and looking at the Eastern sky where the waning crescent will appear just before the sun arises. The next day at dawn the moon will no be seen, that evening is the first day of the month.

How does one find the tequfah?

First true North must be found. This is done by finding the North star. The North star is found in the constellation of Ursa Minor (Job 9:9). It is at the tip of the ‘handle of the Little Dipper’.

Once the North star is found, take a stick and plant it in the ground. Then take another pole and place it behind the first pole making sure it is in line with the North. This pole represents South. Once you have established North and South you can look to your right and see true East. East will be at a perfect right angle to your poles.

As the sun rises on the day of the tequfah, it will be in alignment with your poles lined up in the due East direction.

The pole star has moved slightly in the last 6,000 years but it is always in the vicinity of the ‘Big Dipper’ & ‘Little Dipper.’

How to Find the Summer and Winter Solstice

Take a 4×8 ply board and paint it white, which will help, because you may want to mark on it with a pencil. Then take the ply board and set it up in the north and south direction so that the morning sun will shine on it. To set it up, plant a couple of poles behind it and drill small holes in the board so that you can take bailing wire or whatever and tie the board to the poles, or do what ever it takes to stabilize your ply board. Then take take a 1×4 or 1×6 or whatever you have and drill a 1 inch hole in one end of it. Make sure its about 10 or 12 feet long. At about 16 to 20 feet East, in front of your ply board, set up your 1×4, plant a pole behind it for stabilizing it. Then the morning sun should shine right through the hole you drilled and on to the ply board in the background. What it should look

On about June 21 your sunlight circle will be at its furthest point on the south end of your ply board. On about December 21 the sunlight circle will be at its furthest point on the north end of your ply board.

The above diagram illustrates what the solstices are. They are the stopping points of the sun. This is literally what the word solstice means.

Solstice is from the Latin solstitium which means “point at which the sun seems to stand still,”

30 AD

In 30 A.D. the Conjunction and the V.E. both occured on the same day!

Equinox was on March 22 at 1:a.m. and the Conjunction was at 8 P.M.

Messiah Yahshua was crucified in 30 AD

March 22, 30 AD = Nisan/Aviv 1

March 29 John 12:1 six days before Pesach Yahshua comes to Bethany to have supper

March 30 John 12:12 Yahshua makes His triumphal entry

March 31 Mark 11:12-17 Yahshua curses the fig tree, casts out the money changers

April 2 Olivet discourse

April 4th sunset Pesach (last supper) Mtt 26:17; Mk 14:12; Lk 22:7

April 5th Preparation day for High Sabbath

April 6th 1st day of Unleavened Bread High Sabbath

April 7th Preparation of spices

April 8th Sabbath, at sunset Messiah arises

April 9th Messiah appears to disciples

The only way of getting a Wednesday crucifixion is by counting the from the conjunction. Scripture & history show that Messiah was crucified on Wednesday.

“For they began to hold a council against the Lord on the second day of the week, in the first month, which is Xanthicus; and the deliberation continued on the third day of the week; but on the fourth day (Wednesday) they determined to take away His life by crucifixion” (Apostolic Constitutions-Didascalia Apostolorum, book V, section 1, paragraph xiv).

“Jesus’ Passion began on a Wednesday”

Hans Lietzmann. A History of the Early Church. The World Publishing Company:Cleveland, 1963

It is interesting that the tradition of a Wednesday crucifixion has an ancient origin. Philip Schaff, in his monumental History of the Christian Church, reports that a number of the early Christian congregations observed “the weekly commemoration of the sufferings and death of the Lord” on Wednesdays — even while others observed Fridays. Gradually, however, the Wednesday tradition disappeared.

The Didascalia, an early Christian work, also supports the Wednesday commemoration of the Messiah’s death. In this work the apostles are quoted as saying that it was on Tuesday that they ate the final supper with the Messiah, and that on Wednesday he was taken captive and held in custody in the house of Caiaphas. However, this account is highly suspect due to the fact that the apostles were not aware of the Roman names for the days of the week — these came along after their deaths.

Also, Epiphanius, a post-Nicene writer, protests that Yeshua could not have been arrested on the night of Thursday-Friday; the false tradition for him is that which puts the Last Supper on Thursday evening. The correct one, according to Epiphanius, is that which places it on Tuesday. Moreover, an early chronology worked out by Victorinus of Pettau came to the conclusion that Yeshua must have been put to death on a Wednesday.

Finally, there is a certain amount of evidence found in the writings of the early church fathers for the Last Supper having taken place on Tuesday. And, according to the way the Jews reckoned time, Nisan 14 began at sundown that day — supposedly falling on a Wednesday that year.

Wednesday April 5th….Preparation Day…Passover… Abib 14…Lev 23:5

Messiah died at 3 pm

Mar 15:34 And at the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani? which is, being interpreted, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?

Mar 15:35 And some of them that stood by, when they heard it, said, Behold, he calleth Elias.

Mar 15:36 And one ran and filled a spunge full of vinegar, and put it on a reed, and gave him to drink, saying, Let alone; let us see whether Elias will come to take him down.

Mar 15:37 And Jesus cried with a loud voice, and gave up the ghost.

Mar 15:38 And the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom.

Mar 15:39 And when the centurion, which stood over against him, saw that he so cried out, and gave up the ghost, he said, Truly this man was the Son of God.

He was placed in a tomb before the first day of Unleavened bread (a High Sabbath)

Mat 27:57 When the even was come, there came a rich man of Arimathaea, named Joseph, who also himself was Jesus’ disciple:

Mat 27:58 He went to Pilate, and begged the body of Jesus. Then Pilate commanded the body to be delivered.

Mat 27:59 And when Joseph had taken the body, he wrapped it in a clean linen cloth,

Mat 27:60 And laid it in his own new tomb, which he had hewn out in the rock: and he rolled a great stone to the door of the sepulchre, and departed.

Mat 27:61 And there was Mary Magdalene, and the other Mary, sitting over against the sepulchre.

Joh 19:40 Then took they the body of Jesus, and wound it in linen clothes with the spices, as the manner of the Jews is to bury.

Joh 19:41 Now in the place where he was crucified there was a garden; and in the garden a new sepulchre, wherein was never man yet laid.

Joh 19:42 There laid they Jesus therefore because of the Jews’ preparation day; for the sepulchre was nigh at hand.

Thursday April 6th…. Abib 15 High Sabbath Lev 23:6-7; John 19:31

Joh 19:31 The Jews therefore, because it was the preparation, that the bodies should not remain upon the cross on the sabbath day, (for that sabbath day was an high day,) besought Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away.

Mat 27:62 And on the morrow, which is after the Preparation, the chief priests and the Pharisees were assembled to Pilate,

Mat 27:63 saying, Sir, we have recalled that that deceiver while living said, After three days I will rise.

Mat 27:64 Therefore, command that the grave be secured until the third day, that His disciples may not come by night and steal Him away, and may say to the people, He is raised from the dead. And the last deception will be worse than the first.

Mat 27:65 And Pilate said to them, You have a guard, go away, make it as secure as you know how.

Mat 27:66 And going along with the guard, they made the grave secure, sealing the stone

Friday April 7th…. Abib 16

Luk 23:56 And they returned, and prepared spices and ointments; and rested the sabbath day according to the commandment. mk 16:1

Saturday Sabbath April 8th…Abib 17 Exo 20:8-11

Luk 23:56 And they returned, and prepared spices and ointments; and rested the sabbath day according to the commandment.

End of the sabbath “dawning/beginning”{Lk 23:54} of 1st day

Mat 28:1 In the end of the sabbath, as it began to dawn toward the first day of the week, came Mary Magdalene and the other Mary to see the sepulchre.

The word for dawn here is G2020 ἐπιφώσκω epiphōskō which means dawn. However, this word is also used for the beginning of Shabbat.

Luk 23:54 And that day was the preparation, and the sabbath drew on.

and the sabbath drew on, or “shone out”; which is so said, though it was evening, on account of the lights, which were every where, in every house, lighted up at this time, and which they were, by their traditions, obliged to: for so run their canons (c);

“three things a man is obliged to say in the midst of his house on the evening of the sabbath, when it is near dark, have ye tithed? have ye mixed? (i.e. the borders of the sabbath, the courts and food) הדליקו הנר, “light the lamp”.”

This was what could by no means be dispensed with; for so they say (d),

“the lighting of the lamp on the sabbath is not in a man’s power, (or at his liberty,) if he pleases he may light, and if not, he may not light.—-But it is what he is obliged to, and every man and woman are bound to have in their houses a lamp lighted up on the sabbath; and though he has nothing to eat, he must beg, and get oil, and light a lamp; for this is included in the delight of the sabbath.—-And he that lights, ought to light within the day, before the setting of the sun.”

So that when these lamps were every where lighting, before the sun was set, and the sabbath properly come, it might be said to draw on, or to be shining forth. Besides, it was usual to call the evening of any day by the name of “light”: thus it is said (e),

אור לארבע עשר, on the light (i.e. the night) of the fourteenth (of the month “Nisan”), they search for leaven, &c.”

So that the evangelist might, very agreeably to the way of speaking with the Jews, say, that the sabbath was enlightening, or growing light, though the evening was coming on.

(c) Misn. Sabbat, c. 2. sect. 7. (d) Maimon. Hilch. Sabbat, c. 5. sect. 1, 3. (e) Misn. Pesachim, c. 1. sect. 1.

Late Saturday-Sunday Abib 18

Early yet dark

Joh 20:1 The first day of the week cometh Mary Magdalene early, when it was yet dark, unto the sepulchre, and seeth the stone taken away from the sepulchre.

Sunday April 9th…Abib 18

Mar 16:2 And very early in the morning **** the first day of the week, they came unto the sepulchre at the rising of the sun.

Mar 16:3 And they said among themselves, Who shall roll us away the stone from the door of the sepulchre?

Mar 16:4 And when they looked, they saw that the stone was rolled away: for it was very great.

Mar 16:5 And entering into the sepulchre, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, clothed in a long white garment; and they were affrighted.

Mar 16:6 And he saith unto them, Be not affrighted: Ye seek Jesus of Nazareth, which was crucified: he is risen(He was already risen on Saturday afternoon); he is not here: behold the place where they laid him.

Luk 24:1 Now upon the first day of the week, very early in the morning, they came unto the sepulchre, bringing the spices which they had prepared, and certain others with them.

Luk 24:2 And they found the stone rolled away from the sepulchre.

Luk 24:3 And they entered in, and found not the body of the Lord Jesus.

Luk 24:4 And it came to pass, as they were much perplexed thereabout, behold, two men stood by them in shining garments:

Luk 24:5 And as they were afraid, and bowed down their faces to the earth, they said unto them, Why seek ye the living among the dead?

Luk 24:6 He is not here, but is risen: remember how he spake unto you when he was yet in Galilee,

Mar 16:9 Now when Jesus was risen early the first day of the week, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, out of whom he had cast seven devils.

Mar 16:10 And she went and told them that had been with him, as they mourned and wept.

Mar 16:11 And they, when they had heard that he was alive, and had been seen of her, believed not.

Mar 16:12 After that he appeared in another form unto two of them, as they walked, and went into the country.

Mar 16:13 And they went and told it unto the residue: neither believed they them.

Mar 16:14 Afterward he appeared unto the eleven as they sat at meat, and upbraided them with their unbelief and hardness of heart, because they believed not them which had seen him after he was risen.

*****λίαν πρωῒ The phrase used here in Mk 16:2 for very early is similar to Mark 1:35 πρωΐ ἔννυχα λίαν

Mar 1:35 And in the morning, rising up a great while before day, he went out, and departed into a solitary place, and there prayed.

Yahshua the Messiah died on Wednesday April 5 AD 30 and arose Saturday April 8 AD 30

Messiah said He would be in the heart of the earth 3 days and 3 nights. It was the only sign He would give that proved He was the Messiah

Mat 12:38 Then certain of the scribes and of the Pharisees answered, saying, Master, we would see a sign from thee.

Mat 12:39 But he answered and said unto them, An evil and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign; and there shall no sign be given to it, but the sign of the prophet Jonas:

Mat 12:40 For as Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale’s belly; so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.

Daniel’s prophecy lines up with 30 AD

A day of prophetic fulfillment is a year in actual time (Ezek 4.4-6) & (Num 14.34). The total number of years from the decree to restore Jerusalem until the ministry of Messiah is figured this way: 69 (weeks) X 7 (days a week) equals 483 prophetic days, or 483 years of actual time.

The decree was issued to Ezra by King Artaxerxes of Persia (Ezra 7.8 -11). This decree officially established Jerusalem as a provincial capital city, under its own governor, within the Persian Realm. The seventh year of Artaxerxes was the calendar year from September 458 BC to September 457 BC.

The 483 years of the 69 week prophecy extended from that time forward to AD 27. That was the time Yahshua the Messiah began His ministry. 69 X 7 = 483 years – 457 BC the year the decree was issued This leaves a subtotal of 26 years, or AD 26 The prophecy of Daniel 9 contains another prophetic week, making a total of 70 weeks.

Since AD 26 -adding 3 1/2 half years of the ministry of Yahshua would bring us to the Spring AD 30, the time of His death. Yahshua was about 30 in the Autumn of AD 26.

Three decrees concerning Jerusalem are recorded, that of Cyrus, B.C. 536 (Ussher), for the restoration of the “house of the Lord God of Israel” (2Chr. 36.22.23; Ezra 1.1-3); that of Darius (Ez. 6.3-8, B.C. 521-486), and that of Artaxerxes in his seventh year (Ez. 7.7, say, B.C. 458). Artaxerxes in his twentieth year, B.C. 444 (Hales, Jahn), 446 (A.V.), 454 (Ussher, Hengstenberg), gave permission for the rebuilding of the “city,” i.e., “Jerusalem” (Neh. 2.1-8). The latter decree is obviously, that from which the “seven weeks” (49 years) run, unless by “the commandment to restore,” etc. is meant the divine decree (Dan. 9.23).

In the present state of biblical chronology the date of the decree of Artaxerxes cannot be unanswerably fixed farther than to say that it was issued between 454 and 444 B.C. In either case we are brought to the time of Christ. Prophetic time is invariably so near as to give full warning, so indeterminate as to give no satisfaction to mere curiosity (cf. Mat. 24.36; Acts 1.7). The 434 years reckon, of course, from the end of the seven weeks so that the whole time from “the going forth of the commandment to restore,” etc., “unto the Messiah” is sixty-nine weeks of years, or 483 years.

Miracles that happened in 30 AD

“Forty years before the destruction of the Temple, the western light went out, the crimson thread remained crimson, and the lot for the Lord always came up in the left hand. They would close the gates of the Temple by night and get up in the morning and find them wide open” (Jacob Neusner, The Yerushalmi, p.156-157). [the Temple was destroyed in 70 CE]

“Our rabbis taught: During the last forty years before the destruction of the Temple the lot ['For the Lord'] did not come up in the right hand; nor did the crimson-colored strap become white; nor did the western most light shine; and the doors of the Hekel [Temple] would open by themselves” (Soncino version, Yoma 39b).

The Jerusalem Talmud states:

”Said Rabban Yohanan Ben Zakkai to the Temple, ‘O Temple, why do you frighten us? We know that you will end up destroyed. For it has been said, ‘Open your doors, O Lebanon, that the fire may devour your cedars’ ” (Zechariah 11:1)’ (Sota 6:3).

1st Century disagreements over the Calendar

Sadducces, who had rule during temple times opposed the Pharisaic/Talmudic reckoning of new moon

Decline of Sadduceeism.

http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=40&letter=S#224

Whether the Sadducees were less strict in regard to the state of impurity of woman in her periods (Niddah iv. 2), and what object they had in opposing the determination by the Pharisees of the appearance of the new moon (R. H. ii. 1, 22b; Tos. R. H. i. 15), are not clear.

Essenes also had a problem with the calendar in use at that time

Vanderkam, J.C., “2 Maccabees 6, 7a and Calendrical Change in Jerusalem Vol. XII No.1, 7/81, pp.52-74

“Yoma 19b The Qumran community, for their own reasons, also rejected the leadership of the Jerusalem priesthood. “The priestly establishment, headed by the Wicked Priest, and the people who accepted their spiritual leadership worshipped according to a differing calendrical system, and on this account the Essenes from Qumran considered them sinners, willing violators of divine instructions”

“As for the exact determination of their times to which Israel turns a blind eye, behold it is strictly defined in the Book of the Divisions of the Times into their Jubilees and Weeks.” CD xvi, 2-4

The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English pg 78-79

The Essenes followed a solar calendar of 364 days, 52 weeks precisely. Each of its four seasons was thirteen weeks long divided into three months of theiry days each, plus an additional ‘remembrance’ day (1QS x, 5) linking one season to another (13 x 7=91=3 x 30 + 1). In tune in this way with the ‘laws of the Great Light of heaven’ (1QH xii, 5) and not with the ‘festivals of the nations’ )4QpHos=4Q171 ii, 16). Its unbroken rhythm meant that the first day of the year and of each subsequent season always fell on the same day of the week. For the Essenes this was Wednesday, since according to Genesis 1:14-19 it was on the fourth day that the sun and moon were created. Passover was always celebrated on Wed., the Feast of Weeks on Sun., the Day of Atonement on Fri., Feast of Tabernacles on Wed. etc..

The Essenes also divided the year into 7 fifty day periods (pentecontad calendar) each marked by an agricultural festival (Feast of New Wine, Feast of Oil etc) The Feast of New Wheat coincided with the Feast of Shavuot and was the principal holy day of the year, the Renewal of the Covenant. The Book of Jubilees agrees with the Essene calendar where the Feast of Shavuot is together with the Feast of the Renewal of the Covenant, celebrated on the 15th day of the 3rd month. (Jub. 6, 17-19; 4Q266 fr. 11 ii, 270 fr. 7 ii)

Jubilees Chapter 6

15 it and not be rooted out. And He gave to Noah and his sons a sign that there should not again

16 be a flood on the earth. He set His bow in the cloud for a sign of the eternal covenant that there

17 should not again be a flood on the earth to destroy it all the days of the earth. For this reason it is ordained and written on the heavenly tablets, that they should celebrate the feast of weeks in this

18 month once a year, to renew the covenant every year. And this whole festival was celebrated in heaven from the day of creation till the days of Noah -twenty-six jubilees and five weeks of years [1309-1659 A.M.]: and Noah and his sons observed it for seven jubilees and one week of years, till the day of Noah’s death, and from the day of Noah’s death his sons did away with (it) until the days of Abraham, and

19 they eat blood. But Abraham observed it, and Isaac and Jacob and his children observed it up to thy days, and in thy days the children of Israel forgot it until ye celebrated it anew on this mountain.

20 And do thou command the children of Israel to observe this festival in all their generations for a

21 commandment unto them: one day in the year in this month they shall celebrate the festival. For it is the feast of weeks and the feast of first fruits: this feast is twofold and of a double nature:

22 according to what is written and engraven concerning it, celebrate it. For I have written in the book of the first law, in that which I have written for thee, that thou shouldst celebrate it in its season, one day in the year, and I explained to thee its sacrifices that the children of Israel should remember and should celebrate it throughout their generations in this month, one day in every year.

23 And on the new moon of the first month, and on the new moon of the fourth month, and on the new moon of the seventh month, and on the new moon of the tenth month are the days of remembrance, and the days of the seasons in the four divisions of the year. These are written and ordained

24 as a testimony for ever. And Noah ordained them for himself as feasts for the generations for ever,

Even Rabbis bickered amongst themselves about the calendar

Rabbi Gamaliel II, who endeavoured to humiliate Rabbi Joshua ben Hananiah sent him the following instruction: ‘I charge you that you come to me with you staff and your money on the Day o fAtonement according to your reckoning’ (Rosh Hashanah ii, 9)

Rabbi’s believe they have the right to make incorrect calendars

Rabbi Akiba’s Messiah pp102-103

The text says, ‘you’, ‘you’, ‘you’, three times, to indicate that ‘you’ (may fix the festivals) even if you err inadvertently, ‘you’, even if you err deliberately, ‘you’, even if you are misled.’ Rabbi Akiva Rosh Hashana 25a

Daniel Gruber “Rabbi Akiba’s Messiah” pg 82

“According to the Rabbis, God Himself would obey whatever they decided. Related to the issue of the inaccurate announcement of the new moon which we looked at earlier is the claim that, “Heaven itself yields to the authority of the earthly court of justice as to the fixing of the calendar and the festival days.”

Incorrect Calendar and Yom Kippur

http://www.aish.com/literacy/jewishhistory/Crash_Course_in_Jewish_History_Part_25_The_Second_Temple.asp

According to the Talmud, during the First Temple period of about 410 years, there were only 18 High Priests. During the Second Temple period of 420 years, there were 300 High Priests! We know (from the Talmud, Yoma 9a) that Yochanan was High Priest for 80 years, Shimon was High Priest for 40 years, and Yishmael was High Priest for 10 years. That means in the remaining 290 years there were 298 priests – one ever year or so. What accounts for that?

The Talmud tells us that the Holy of Holies was forbidden ground, except for Yom Kippur. On that one day only, the High Priests entered to perform special rites before God. But if he himself was not spiritually pure and unable to focus, he would not be able to stand the intense encounter with God and would die on the spot. We know that during the Second Temple Period a rope had to be tied to the High Priest, so that in case he died, he could be pulled out of the Holy of Holies.

Because the whole High Priesthood was a corrupted institution for most of the Second Temple period, the High Priests died every year. And yet people clamored for the job, which went to the highest bidder. So the question has to be asked: If he was going to die on Yom Kippur, who would want the position? One possible answer is that the candidates had such huge egos that they thought they were the ones who were going to make it. That is how bad things got.

According to jewish writings 420 years from building of temple of Zerubabel to the destruction of the temple in 70 AD

Shimeon righteous 40 years

Yochanan 80 years

Eliezer 10 years

290 priests only lasted one year and died on Yom Kippur; needed to go in on right day

Lev 10:1 And Nadab and Abihu, the sons of Aaron, took either of them his censer, and put fire therein, and put incense thereon, and offered strange fire before the LORD, which he commanded them not.

Lev 16:1 And the LORD spake unto Moses after the death of the two sons of Aaron, when they offered before the LORD, and died;

Lev 16:2 And the LORD said unto Moses, Speak unto Aaron thy brother, that he come not at all times into the holy place within the vail before the mercy seat, which is upon the ark; that he die not: for I will appear in the cloud upon the mercy seat.

The Encyclopedia Judaica informs us that the name Pharisee is derived from the Hebrew word “perushim”; which means “cast out”. Originally the Sadducees cast the perushim out of the Sanhedrin for their heretical ideas. These “cast out” Perushim, usurped the Zadokite Dynasty with the Hasmonean Dynasty — and only 35% of the time did they come out of the Holy of Holies on Yom Kippur, alive.

The Gemara (Yoma 9a) states that the first Holy Mikdash where the Dynasty of Zadok served and which stood for 410 years, only had 18 High Priests who served in it. Tosafot state that Divrei Hayamim (I Chronicles 5:36) itemizes only eight High Priests who served.

In the second Holy Mikdash, which abided for 420 years, more than 300 Pharisee priests served. If you subtract the 40 years which Shimeon the Righteous served, the 80 years which Yochanan the High Priest served, the 10 years which Yishmael b. Fabi served or, as some say, the 11 years of Rabbi Eleazar b. Charsum, and then count the number of High Priests from then on — you will find that none of them completed his year in office. The Jewish Press, Friday, May 9, 1997 states: “They all died when they entered the Holy of Holies on Yom Kippur to pray for a good year for all Jews. This happened because they were corrupt. They bought the high priestly office for money and also accepted bribes.”

The people were so accustomed to see the priests die that they tied a rope around them and, when they didn’t walk out from the Holy of Holies, the people knew they had died and they were then pulled out, for no one else was allowed to enter the Holy of Holies.

Crescent Moon Sighting

The crescent sighting can occur anywhere from 6 hours to 72 hours after the conjunction. YHWH is not the author of confusion.

The new moon sighting in Jerusalem has only been able to be observed in the last decade/century due to the advancement in communications. Does this mean that every generation of believers since the times of the second Temple have not been keeping the Feasts on the right days?

Psalm 81:3 is written in Hebrew syntax (just ask Nehemia Gordon). Feasts on the 15th are exactly half a month after the conjunction of the new moon. If the crescent sighting is the beginning of the month then the full moon is never half a month later.

YHWH created the heavenly bodies for times and seasons. The crescent puts the times and seasons into our hands. Man has to sight the first sliver of the new moon, man announces when the month starts. The conjunction leaves the calendar in the hands of the Almighty. He is the one that created the heavenly bodies and He is the One that ordained how they move about in the heavens.

What happens when the sky is cloudy? The new moon is pushed off another day or man just decides that the crescent would have appeared that night so the new month is announced. This is confusion. YHWH is not the author of confusion.

There is a specific word for crescent in Hebrew which is never used in connection with the new moons.

H7720

שׂהרן

śahărôn

BDB Definition:

1) moon, crescent

1a) as ornament

Part of Speech: noun masculine

A Related Word by BDB/Strong’s Number: from the same as H5469

You can find in the book “The Secret Language Of Symbols” written by David Fontana, ISBN 0-818-0462-3 (with index) or ISBN 0-8118-0489-5 (without index). There are many references to the Queen of Heaven in Scripture, that being one of the “trinity” godhead of the christian religions.

You can find on page 121 shown with the icon, “A symbol of ascent from the underworld (the three days of the dark moon). The crescent moon is an attribute of Isis, the Great Mother of the Egyptians, and in Christian iconography, of the Virgin Mary”.

YHWH commanded us not to worship the heavenly bodies…given mankind’s affinity with idolatry, would He really tempt us by having us star at the sky looking for a crescent moon to start the month?

Deu 17:2 If there be found among you, within any of thy gates which the LORD thy God giveth thee, man or woman, that hath wrought wickedness in the sight of the LORD thy God, in transgressing his covenant,

Deu 17:3 And hath gone and served other gods, and worshipped them, either the sun, or moon, or any of the host of heaven, which I have not commanded;

Deu 4:15 Take ye therefore good heed unto yourselves; for ye saw no manner of similitude on the day that the LORD spake unto you in Horeb out of the midst of the fire:

Deu 4:16 Lest ye corrupt yourselves, and make you a graven image, the similitude of any figure, the likeness of male or female,

Deu 4:17 The likeness of any beast that is on the earth, the likeness of any winged fowl that flieth in the air,

Deu 4:18 The likeness of any thing that creepeth on the ground, the likeness of any fish that is in the waters beneath the earth:

Deu 4:19 And lest thou lift up thine eyes unto heaven, and when thou seest the sun, and the moon, and the stars, even all the host of heaven, shouldest be driven to worship them, and serve them, which the LORD thy God hath divided unto all nations under the whole heaven.

Usage of the word saharon in Scripture

Jdg 8:21 Then Zeḇaḥ and Tsalmunna said, “Rise yourself, and fall on us. For as a man is, so is his might.” So Giḏʽon arose and slew Zeḇaḥ and Tsalmunna, and took the crescent ornaments which were on their camels’ necks.

Isa 3:18 In that day יהוה takes away the finery of the anklets, and the headbands, and the crescents,

Some say that in Psalm 81:3, the word keseh does not mean the dark moon Psalm 81 but keseh means covered w/ light? If this were the case, the word atah, not keseh would have been used.

Here is an example Albert Barnes

In the time appointed – The word used here – כסה keseh – means properly the full moon; the time of the full moon. In Syriac the word means either “the first day of the full moon,” or “the whole time of the full moon.” (Isa Bar Ali, as quoted by Gesenius, Lexicon) Thus, the word means, not as in our translation, in the time appointed, but at the full moon, and would refer to the time of the Passover, which was celebrated on the fourteenth day of the lunar month; that is, when the moon was at the full. Exo_12:6.

However it is clear that the word keseh means to cover and conceal. If the Holy Spirit was trying to convey a covering of light, as the full moon would be, the word atah would have been used as it is in the following verses:

Psa 104:2 covering Yourself with light like a cloak, and stretching out the heavens like a curtain;

Psa 84:6 Who passing through the valley of Baca make it a well; the rain also filleth the pools.

H5844

עטה

‛âṭâh

BDB Definition:

1) to cover, enwrap, wrap oneself, envelop oneself

1a) (Qal)

1a1) to wrap, envelop oneself

1a2) to cover (the beard in mourning)

1a3) mourner, one who covers (participle)

1b) (Hiphil) to cover, enwrap, envelop

2) to grasp

2a) (Qal) to grasp

Part of Speech: verb

A Related Word by BDB/Strong’s Number: a primitive root

Crescent sighting

The Talmud says that during the 2nd Temple period the new moon was proclaimed by the crescent sighting, however the rabbis in the Talmud are not passed lying in order to attain, or keep power. The Sadducees did not agree w/ the Pharisees on the calendar but because only the writings of the Pharisees have been preserved we can not be sure what the point of dissension was. The Essene sect also disagreed on the calendar, probably disagreeing with both Sadducees and Pharisees. It is not impossible to imagine that much of what has been written in the Oral Law about the calendar is purely fantasy in order for the Pharisees/Rabbis to keep power over the Jewish people.

Secondly, the only source of the crescent sighting being the Biblical start of the month comes from the Talmud. There is absolutely no Scriptural evidence to support this.

Can the Talmud be trusted as historical fact?

“It [the Mishnah] purports to describe how things are. But it tells us more about a fantasy than about the real palpable world, the world concretely known to the people who wrote about it.”3

3 Jacob Neusner, Messiah, 24.

If a person heard a ruling and it seems to him that the law is thus, he is permitted to say it in the name of a great person so that the people will accept it from him. -Magan Avraham, Orach Chayim 156b (canonical commentary on the 17th century Shulchan Aruch)

Georges Batault in his 1921 book Le Probläme Juif confirms this tendency of “the Jews” to falsify history to suite the contemporary and future Jewish Agenda:

“The exegesis which consists in distorting texts in order to bring out of them what they desired is the only ‘science’ which can be traced to the Jews. It became in the hands of the Judaeo-Alexandrians, a formidable arm that, by the perfidious force of their veiled lies, enrolled Hellenism, in spite of itself, into the service of the exclusivism and the religious proselytism of the Israelites. The attempt to ‘Judaise’ Hellenism, which today appears to us so perfectly absurd and disastrous, has had, nevertheless, the result of obscuring the intelligence of humanity for hundreds of years.”

The Rabbis could sanctify the month whether or not a crescent was seen or not

Rosh Hashana 24a

The head of the beth din says, sanctified’, and all the people repeat after him, sanctified, sanctified. Whether the new moon is seen at its proper time or not at its proper time, in either case [the new moon] is sanctified. R. Eleazar B. Zadok, however, says that if it is not seen as [at] its proper time [the new moon] is not [formally] sanctified, because heaven has already sanctified it

Here is the ‘evidence’ for the crescent sighting being the start of the month

Sacred Books of the East vol. 4 pg 75 Exodus Rabba

The rite of proclaiming and sanctifying the month at the

appearance of the new moon is traced back to the time of the

Exodus, when Nisson was placed at the head of the months.

The ceremony was of the same importance as are dates in

legal documents and in evidence, and the month only began

when it had been proclaimed by the representative of the

community.

“The beginning of the months were determined by direct observation of the new moon. Then those beginning of months (Rosh Hodesh) were sanctified and announced by the Sanhedrin, the Supreme Court in Jerusalem, after witnesses testified that they had seen the new crescent and after their testimony had been thoroughly examined, confirmed by calculation and duly accepted.” (Arthur Spier, The Comprehensive Hebrew Calendar, p.1, section: HISTORICAL REMARKS ON THE JEWISH CALENDAR)

“But unless all indications are deceitful, they did not in the time of Jesus Christ possess as yet any fixed calendar, but on the basis of a purely empirical observation, on each occasion they began a new month with the appearing of the new moon…” [5] (Emil Schurer, The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ, p.366)

“…Rejecting the fixed calendar as a heretic innovation, the Karaites held that by law of Scripture the beginning of the months must be determined by the appearance of the new crescent and no other means, and that this had been the practice of ancient Israel at all times. Rabbanite refutation of this extreme assertion found its most outspoken exponent in Saadia Gaon, who went to the opposite extreme in ‘demonstrating’ that the fixed calendar, computation of molad and tekufah, has the force of a Mosaic-Sinaitic law that had been followed at all ages of the past [like some in the CoGs proclaim], while observation of the new crescent was merely a passing episode in the history of the Jews, introduced at the time of the Sadducees to show that it confirmed the correctness of the prescribed calendaric regulation by calculation. Although this contention could easily be refuted by the Karaites as fanciful to the point of ridicule, Saadia’s prestige was so great that his theory was accepted even by leading scholars…..Maimonides [12th century A.D] is one of the few medieval Rabbanite authorities known to have taken issue with Saadia’s and his followers’ contention, and his refutation amounts to unmitigated reproach, indeed to expression of intellectual as well as religious indignation. [Maimonides commented:] ‘I am truly astonished over a personage who rejects clear evidence, asserting that the religion of Israel was based, not on observation of the new moon, but on calculation alone–and yet he [Saadia] affirms the authority of all these (just mentioned) Talmudic passages! I think indeed that he did not believe his own assertions, but he merely wished to repel his [Karaite] adversary by any notion that just occurred to him, be it true or false, when he had found himself unable to escape the force of (his adversary’s) argument.’” (The Code of Maimonides, book II, treatise 8, translated by Solomon Gandz, Yale Judaica Series, Volume XI, pp.lii-liii)

“The Talmudic Rabbis [ca. first half of the third century C.E. (i.e., prior to 250 C.E.) to the end of the fifth century C.E.] recognised the variation in length of the synodic month…and hence they determined the beginning of every month separately by observation of the new moon as well as by calculation.” (W.M. Feldman, Rabbinical Mathematics and Astronomy, Hermon Press, 1965, p.123)

“In mishnaic times [the Mishnah was completed ca. 200 C.E.], though the authorities were familiar with astronomical calculations, the new moon was fixed on the basis of observation, which meant that, as a rule, the bet din formally proclaimed the New Month only after it had heard evidence of witnesses who had actually seen the new moon.” (Encyclopedia Judaica, Volume 14, article: Rosh Ha-Shanah, p.311)

Midrash Shemot Rabbah 15:24

When the Sanhedrin sanctified a new month, what blessing did they make? Some Rabbis say that the blessing recited was “Blessed are You Hashem, Who renews the months.” Other Rabbis say that the blessing recited was “Blessed are You Hashem, Who makes the months holy.” Other Rabbis say that the blessing recited was “Blessed are You Hashem, Who makes the Children of Israel holy.”

Because if the Children of Israel do not sanctify the moon, it does not become holy at all!

Don’t be surprised by this, because Hashem made Israel holy, as it says “And you shall be holy to Me, for I, Hashem, am holy…” (Leviticus 20:26). And since the Children of Israel are holy and special to heaven, whatever they make holy is truly holy.

Do you want to understand this? Take a lesson from the Serving Vessels in the Holy Sanctuary. Moses sanctified the Tabernacle. Who sanctified all the Tabernacle’s Vessels? You might think that Moses did. But actually, what happened was that a priest would bring a simple mundane cup or other vessel, and put something holy in it, and the cup would automatically become holy. It worked the same way as when Moses sprinkled sacrificial blood on the Altar, and it became holy; or when he poured a wine libation, or performed any aspect of the Holy Temple Service with any mundane vessel, and it thereby became holy.

Now, if a simple, mundane cup becomes holy when it is filled with something holy, all the more so the Children of Israel, who are themselves holy, should have the ability to make the month holy!

The Holy One, blessed is He, said, “I am holy. I Myself make things holy. I will make Israel holy, and they will fill the world with holiness by declaring Me holy. Therefore, the Torah says, “And you will be holy to Me, for I, Hashem, am holy…(ibid),” and “I am Hashem Who makes you holy” (Leviticus 20:8).

That is what King David means when he says “You are holy; You are enthroned by the praises of Israel” (Psalms 22:4)

And when did Israel begin to sanctify the months? In Egypt, as it says “This month shall be the first month for you…” (Exodus 12:2).

In the following passage the crescent moon was sighted, but because the Rabbis didn’t sanctify the month, the new month didn’t start. This passage also shows the rabbis knew how to calculate the months

Rosh HaShana 25a Our Rabbis taught: Once the heavens were covered with clouds and the likeness of the moon was seen on the twenty-ninth of the month. The public were minded to declare New Moon, and the Beth din wanted to sanctify it, but Rabban Gamaliel said to them: I have it on the authority of the house of my father’s father that the renewal of the moon takes place after not less than twenty-nine days and a half and two-thirds of an hour and seventy-three halakin.[6] On that day the mother of Ben Zaza died, and Rabban Gamaliel made a great funeral oration over her, not because she had merited it, but so that the public should know that the Beth din had not sanctified the month.[7]

[6] Lit., ‘parts’ (sc. of one hour), 73/1080 X 60 m == 4 m 3 1/3 sec. The new moon, therefore, could not be seen on the twenty-ninth day.

“WHEN THE TEMPLE WAS STANDING THEY USED TO PROFANE SABBATH FOR ALL THE MONTHS, IN ORDER THAT THE SACRIFICE [OF NEW MOON] MIGHT BE OFFERED ON THE RIGHT DAY…. WHETHER [THE NEW MOON] HAS BEEN SEEN CLEARLY OR HAS NOT BEEN SEEN CLEARLY, SABBATH MAY BE PROFANED ON ACCOUNT OF IT.” (Mas. Rosh HaShana 21b)

“HOW DO THEY TEST THE WITNESSES? THE PAIR WHO ARRIVE FIRST ARE TESTED FIRST. THE SENIOR OF THEM IS BROUGHT IN AND THEY SAY TO HIM, TELL US HOW YOU SAW THE MOON — IN FRONT OF THE SUN OR BEHIND THE SUN? TO THE NORTH OF IT OR THE SOUTH? HOW BIG WAS IT, AND IN WHICH DIRECTION WAS IT INCLINED? AND HOW BROAD WAS IT? IF HE SAYS [HE SAW IT] IN FRONT OF THE SUN, HIS EVIDENCE IS REJECTED. AFTER THAT THEY WOULD BRING IN THE SECOND AND TEST HIM. IF THEIR ACCOUNTS TALLIED, THEIR EVIDENCE WAS ACCEPTED, AND THE OTHER PAIRS WERE ONLY QUESTIONED BRIEFLY, NOT BECAUSE THEY WERE REQUIRED AT ALL, BUT SO THAT THEY SHOULD NOT BE DISAPPOINTED, [AND] SO THAT THEY SHOULD NOT BE DISSUADED FROM COMING.” (Mas. Rosh HaShana 23b)

“R. GAMALIEL USED TO HAVE A DIAGRAM OF PHASES OF THE MOON ON A TABLET [HUNG] ON THE WALL OF HIS UPPER CHAMBER, AND HE USED TO SHOW THEM TO THE UNLEARNED AND SAY, DID IT LOOK LIKE THIS OR THIS?” (Mas. Rosh HaShana 24a)[21]

Either way, the Scripture does not make absolutely clear how we are to observe the new moon. Some people believe the calendar that the ancients Hebrews followed was a solar calendar which is known as the Jubilees calendar today. This was the calendar the Essenes followed. There are some today that follow a lunar calendar where the sabbath can fall on different days of the week. In the end, the most important thing is that we are seeking to follow His Torah to the best of our understanding. Let each man be fully convinced in his own mind.

Rom 14:5 One indeed judges a day above another day; and another one judges every day alike. Let each one be fully assured in his own mind.

Babylonian Calendar

The Harlot of Babylon is linked to corrupting the paths of the Most High.

Job 24:13 They are among rebellers against light; they do not recognize His ways, nor do they stay in His paths (natiyb).

‘Natiyb’ is used above in reference to the movement of the sun.

Job 38:19 Where is this, the way light dwells; and where is the place of darkness,

Job 38:20 that you should take it to its boundary, and that you should perceive the paths (natiyb) to its house?

The Elijah Message click here

Isa 40:3 The voice of him who cries in the wilderness: Prepare* the way of YHWH; make straight (yashar) in the desert (arabah -dark place/without Light (Torah, Messiah) a highway for our God.

*panah – turn, to face

Isa 40:4 Every valley shall be exalted, and every mountain and hill shall be made low; and the knoll shall be a level place, and the rough places a plain.

Isa 40:5 And the glory of YHWH shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together, for the mouth of YHWH has spoken.

The Elijah message is a call to return to the ancient/eternal paths

Jer 6:16 So says YHWH, Stand by the ways and see, and ask for the old (olam) paths, where the good way is, and walk in it; and you shall find rest for your souls. But they said, We will not walk in it.

This is what Messiah was speaking about when He said to come and be yoked to Him. Being yoked with the Messiah is being His disciple. His student. Those who ‘tread out the grain’ with Him.

click hereclick here

Mat 11:28 Come unto me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest.

Mat 11:29 Take my yoke upon you, and learn of me; for I am meek and lowly in heart: and ye shall find rest unto your souls.

Mat 11:30 For my yoke is easy, and my burden is light.

Ancient Hebrew definition

(Derekh [dalet resh kaf]) ac: Tread co: Road ab: ?: [from: rach (resh chet) - as a path]

Tread: To take a step. A journey as a treading. The stringing of a bow is a treading as the foot is stepped over the bow and using the leg to bend it. [freq. 62] (vf: Paal, Hiphil, Participle) |kjv: tread*, bend, lead, archer**, come, go, treader*, walk, draw, guide, shoot**, thresh*| {str: 1869}

*Treading and threshing connects back to the cycles of righteousness and being yoked to Messiah (His disciple)

**Archery and shooting is connected to the path/way in that the Torah is likened to a target. To hit it is to stay in the straight paths. The word for sin means to miss the target.

Road: A road that is walked as well as the path of life. [freq. 705] |kjv: way, toward, journey, manner| {str: 1870}

From Rach (resh chet)

Travel co: Path ab: ?: The pictograph RESH is a picture of the head of a man, the CHET is a picture of wall that separates the inside from the outside. Combined these mean “man outside”. The responsibilities of the nomad outside of the tent include the feeding, watering and caring for the livestock. Livestock are healthier and more productive when on a routine, therefore the man follows a routine or “a prescribed path” each day when caring for his livestock.

Routine is not a bad thing. This is how we learn and stay in His ways. His cycles of righteousness literally mean ruts of righteousness. Getting in a rut is not a bad thing if your rut is the straight path of the Torah. It helps us to stay in His ways because they become “second nature”.

rach – Shovel: A shovel used for winnowing grain in the wind. [freq. 1] |kjv: shovel| {str: 7371}

arach - Travel co: Caravan ab: ?: One who follows a prescribed path to arrive at a specific destination. Travel: [freq. 5] (vf: Paal) |kjv: wayfaring, go| {str: 732}

orach - (Hrfa% AW-RHh) – Path: The road one travels. [freq. 58] |kjv: way, path, highway, manner, race, rank, traveler, troop| {str: 734}

Ruach - Refresh co: Wind ab: ?: The Hebrew nomads were very familiar with the wind patterns as they would follow a prescribed path indicating the coming season. From this word comes the idea of breath as it is the wind of man which also follows a prescribed path of inhaling and exhaling. Wind: Also the wind of man or god, the breath. [Hebrew and Aramaic] [freq. 380] |kjv: spirit, wind, breath, side, mind, blast, vain, air, anger, cool, courage, space, enlargement| {str: 7305, 7307}

Walking in the Spirit is walking in His paths (the Way). The Way is the Truth. When Yahshua spoke of worshipping the Father in Spirit and in Truth this is what He meant. Walking in the Spirit of the Torah. Following the Lamb wherever He leads.

Yarach - Moon ab: ?: The moon follows a prescribed path each night from horizon to horizon. Also a month as a counting of time by the cycles of the moon. [Hebrew and Aramaic] [freq. 41] |kjv: month, moon| {str: 3391, 3393, 3394} The moon is another cycle that follows a prescribed path and repeats over and over again. The sun does the same thing. This can be seen in Psalm 19 which is comparing paths of the heavenly bodies to the paths of righteousness (Torah)

Riyach - Aroma ab: ?: What is carried by the wind and smelled while breathing. Aroma: [Hebrew and Aramaic] [freq. 59] |kjv: savour, smell, scent| {str: 7381, 7382} SEE 2 CORINTHIANS 2:14

Cycles of Righteousness

Pro 4:11 I have taught thee in the way of wisdom; I have led thee in right paths (ma’agal).

Trench: The trench made from the wheels of carts. Also an entrenchment. [freq. 1] |kjv: path, trench, goings, ways| {str: 4570}

Psa 17:4 As to the doings of men, by the Words of Your lips I keep from the paths (orach) of the violent.

Psa 17:5 My steps have kept in Your tracks so that my strides have not slipped (not shaken…ie no compromising).

2 Paths to choose from

Pro 2:1 My son, if you will receive my words, and treasure up my commandments with you,

Pro 2:2 so that you attend to wisdom, you shall extend your heart to understanding.

Pro 2:3 For if you cry for discernment, lifting up your voice for understanding;

Pro 2:4 if you seek her as silver, and search for her as hidden treasures,

Pro 2:5 then you shall understand the fear of YHWH and find knowledge of God.

Pro 2:6 For YHWH gives wisdom; out of His mouth are knowledge and understanding.

Pro 2:7 He lays up sound wisdom for the upright; He is a shield to the ones who walk (halak) in integrity (tom-perfect),

Pro 2:8 to guard the paths (orach) of judgment, and He protects the way (derekh) of His saints.

Pro 2:9 Then you shall understand righteousness and judgment and honesty, yea, every good path (ma’agal).

Pro 2:10 When wisdom enters into your heart, and knowledge is pleasant to your soul,

Pro 2:11 discretion shall keep you, understanding shall watch over you,

Pro 2:12 to deliver you from the evil way, from the man who speaks perverse things,

Pro 2:13 those who leave the paths (orach) of uprightness to walk in the ways of darkness,

Pro 2:14 who rejoice to do evil, they delight in the perversities of the wicked,

Pro 2:15 whose paths (orach) are crooked, who are devious (turn to right or left) in their tracks (ma’agal);

Pro 2:16 these will deliver you from the strange woman, from the foreigner who flatters with her words,

Pro 2:17 who forsakes the guide of her youth and forgets the covenant of her God.

Pro 2:18 For her house leads down to death, and her tracks (ma’agal) to the departed spirits.

Pro 2:19 All going in to her do not return, nor do they reach the ways (orach) of life.

Pro 2:20 Then you may walk in the ways (derekh)of the good and keep the ways (orach) of the righteous.

Pro 2:21 For the upright (straight) shall live in the land, and the perfect shall remain in it.

Pro 2:22 But the wicked shall be cut off from the earth, and the transgressors shall be rooted out of it.

Pro 4:11 I have taught you in the way (derekh) of wisdom; I have led you in the right tracks (ma’agal);

Pro 4:12 when you go, your tracks (steps) shall not be narrowed (bound, troublesome), and when you run, you shall not stumble.

Pro 4:13 Take fast hold of instruction, do not let her go; keep her, for she is your life.

Pro 4:14 Do not enter the path (orach) of the wicked, and do not go in the way (derekh) of evildoers.

Pro 4:15 Avoid it (para/freedom), do not pass by it; turn (satah -rebel/hate) from it and pass on.

We are to seek freedom from the paths of the wicked. The wicked seek to be set free from the paths of righteousness.click here

Pro 4:16 For they do not sleep if they have done no evil, and their sleep is taken away unless they cause some to fall.

Pro 4:17 For they eat the bread of wickedness, and drink the wine of violence.

Pro 4:18 But the path (orach) of the just is as a bright light going on (halak) and shining till the day is established.

Pro 4:19 The way (derekh) of the wicked is as darkness; they do not know at what they stumble.

Pro 4:20 My son, pay attention to my words; stretch your ear to what I say;

Pro 4:21 let them not depart from your eyes; keep them in the center of your heart;

Pro 4:22 for they are life to those who find them, and healing to all his flesh.

Pro 4:23 Keep your heart with all diligence, for out of it are the issues of life.

Pro 4:24 Turn away from you the crooked mouth, and put perverse lips far from you.

Pro 4:25 Let your eyes look straight ahead, and let your eyelids look straight before you.

Pro 4:26 Study (palas-weigh out) the track (ma’agal) of your feet, then all your ways will be established.

Pro 4:27 Do not turn to the right hand or to the left; turn your foot aside from evil.

Pro 5:3 For the lips of a strange woman drip honey, and her palate is sweeter than oil,

Pro 5:4 but afterwards, she is bitter as wormwood, sharp as a sword of mouths;

Pro 5:5 her feet go down to death; her steps take hold on hell,

Pro 5:6 lest you should meditate on the path of life, her tracks are movable, you cannot know them.

Pro 5:21 For the ways of man are before the eyes of YHWH, and He ponders all his tracks.

Psa 119:1 ALEPH: Blessed are the upright in the way, who walk in the Law of YHWH.

Psa 119:2 Blessed are those keeping His Testimonies, who seek Him with the whole heart.

Psa 119:3 They also do not work evil; they walk in His way.

Psa 1:1 Blessed is the man who has not walked in the counsel of the ungodly, and has not stood in the way of sinners, and has not sat in the seat of scorners.

Psa 1:2 But his delight is only in the Law of YHWH, and he meditates in His Law day and night.

Psa 1:3 And he shall be like a tree planted by the rivulets of waters, which will give its fruit in its seasons, and its leaf will not wither, and all which he does will prosper.

Psa 1:4 Not so are the wicked, but they are only as chaff which the wind drives about.

Psa 1:5 On account of this the wicked shall not stand in the judgment, nor sinners in the congregation of the righteous.

Psa 1:6 For YHWH is knowing the way of the righteous, and the way of the wicked shall perish.

Job 24:13 They are among rebellers against light; they do not recognize His ways, nor do they stay in His paths.

Pro 3:17 Her ways are ways of pleasantness, and all her paths peace.

Pro 7:25 Do not let your heart turn aside to her ways; do not go astray in her paths.

Pro 7:26 For many are the wounded she has caused to fall; and plentiful all her slain ones.

Pro 7:27 The ways of Sheol are in her house, leading down to the rooms of death.

Pro 8:2 She stands in the top of high places, by the wayside, in the houses of the paths,

Jer 18:15 But My people have forgotten Me. They have burned incense to vain idols; and they have caused them to stumble in their ways, from the old paths, to walk in bypaths, not on the highway;

Isa 58:13 If you turn your foot away because of the sabbath, from doing what you please on My holy days, and call the sabbath a delight, to the holiness of Jehovah, glorified; and shall glorify Him, to the holiness of not doing your own ways, from finding your own pleasure or speaking your word;

Isa 58:14 then you shall delight yourself in YHWH. And I will cause you to ride on the heights of the earth, and make you eat with the inheritance of your father Jacob. For the mouth of YHWH has spoken.

Sir 43:2 The sun when it appeareth, declaring at his rising a marvellous instrument, the work of the most High:

Sir 43:3 At noon it parcheth the country, and who can abide the burning heat thereof?

Sir 43:4 A man blowing a furnace is in works of heat, but the sun burneth the mountains three times more; breathing out fiery vapours, and sending forth bright beams, it dimmeth the eyes.

Sir 43:5 Great is the Lord that made it; and at his commandment runneth hastily.

Sir 43:6 He made the moon also to serve in her season for a declaration of times, and a sign of the world.

Sir 43:7 From the moon is the sign of feasts, a light that decreaseth in her perfection.

Sir 43:8 The month is called after her name, increasing wonderfully in her changing, being an instrument of the armies above, shining in the firmament of heaven;

Sir 43:9 The beauty of heaven, the glory of the stars, an ornament giving light in the highest places of the Lord.

Sir 43:10 At the commandment of the Holy One they will stand in their order, and never faint in their watches.

Sir 43:11 Look upon the rainbow, and praise him that made it; very beautiful it is in the brightness thereof.

Sir 43:12 It compasseth the heaven about with a glorious circle, and the hands of the most High have bended it.

Crescent and Babylonian calendar

http://www.friesian.com/calendar.htm

The Babylonian Calendar

after R.A. Parker & W.H. Dubberstein, Babylonian Chronology

[Providence, Rhode Island, 1956]

The beginning of the month in the Babylonian calendar was determined by the direct observation by priests of the young crescent moon at sunset after the astronomical New Moon. This custom is remembered in Judaism and Islâm with the principle that the new calendar day begins at sunset. In Islâm, months whose commencement is of religious significance, like the month after the Fast of Ramadân, still depend on the actual observation of the crescent moon by a respected religious authority

If weather prevented the observation of the crescent, the Babylonians would begin the new month anyway after 30 days. In the Jewish and Islâmic calendars, each month is given a conventional length, alternating 30 days and 29 days. For convenience, the table at left applies that device for the Babylonian months, which will enable us to construct a working model of the Babylonian calendar without the priests of Marduk.

From wikipedia.org

The Babylonian calendar was a lunisolar calendar with years consisting of 12 lunar months, each beginning when a new crescent moon was first sighted low on the western horizon at sunset, plus an intercalary month inserted as needed by decree. The calendar is based on a Sumerian (Ur III) precedecessor preserved in the Umma calendar of Shulgi (ca. 21st century BC).

Counting from the new moon, the Babylonians celebrated every seventh day as a “holy-day”, also called an “evil day” (meaning “unsuitable” for prohibited activities). On these days officials were prohibited from various activities and common men were forbidden to “make a wish”, and at least the 28th was known as a “rest-day”**.

**Origin of lunar sabbath?

On each of them, offerings were made to a different god and goddess, apparently at nightfall to avoid the prohibitions: Merodach and Ishtar on the 7th, Ninlil and Nergal on the 14th, Sin and Shamash on the 21st, and Enki and Mah on the 28th. Tablets from the sixth-century B.C. reigns of Cyrus the Great and Cambyses indicate these dates were sometimes approximate. The lunation of 29 or 30 days basically contained three seven-day weeks, and a final week of nine or ten days inclusive, breaking the continuous seven-day cycle.

Pinches, T.G. (2003). “Sabbath (Babylonian)”. in Hastings, James. Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics. 20. Selbie, John A., contrib. Kessinger Publishing. pp. 889-891. ISBN 9780766136984. http://books.google.com/books?id=qVNqXDz4CE8C. Retrieved 2009-03-17.

Did Israel begin observing the crescent moon as the start of the month after they came out of Babylon? In the time of David when the Psalms were penned, Psalm 81 makes it clear that the new moon was the conjunction/concealed moon.

Crescent Moon, Lucifer & the Queen of Heaven

Isa 14:12 How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations!

The Targum is,

“how art thou fallen from on high, who was shining among the sons of men, as the star Venus among the stars.”

Keil & Delitzsch commentary on Isaiah 14:12

(Note: It is singular, however, that among the Semitic nations the morning star is not personified as a male (Heōsphoros or Phōsphoros), but as a female (Astarte, see at Isa_17:8), and that it is called Nâghâh, Ashtoreth, Zuhara, but never by a name derived from hâlal; whilst the moon is regarded as a male deity (Sin), and in Arabic hilâl signifies the new moon, which might be called ben- shacar (son of the dawn), from the fact that, from the time when it passes out of the invisibility of its first phase, it is seen at sunrise, and is as it were born out of the dawn.)

H7720

שׂהרן

śahărôn

BDB Definition:

1) moon, crescent

1a) as ornament

Part of Speech: noun masculine

A Related Word by BDB/Strong’s Number: from the same as H5469

You can find in the book “The Secret Language Of Symbols” written by David Fontana, ISBN 0-818-0462-3 (with index) or ISBN 0-8118-0489-5 (without index). There are many references to the Queen of Heaven in Scripture, that being one of the “trinity” godhead of the christian religions.

You can find on page 121 shown with the icon, “A symbol of ascent from the underworld (the three days of the dark moon). The crescent moon is an attribute of Isis, the Great Mother of the Egyptians, and in Christian iconography, of the Virgin Mary”.

Deu 17:2 If there be found among you, within any of thy gates which the LORD thy God giveth thee, man or woman, that hath wrought wickedness in the sight of the LORD thy God, in transgressing his covenant,

Deu 17:3 And hath gone and served other gods, and worshipped them, either the sun, or moon, or any of the host of heaven, which I have not commanded;

Deu 4:15 Take ye therefore good heed unto yourselves; for ye saw no manner of similitude on the day that the LORD spake unto you in Horeb out of the midst of the fire:

Deu 4:16 Lest ye corrupt yourselves, and make you a graven image, the similitude of any figure, the likeness of male or female,

Deu 4:17 The likeness of any beast that is on the earth, the likeness of any winged fowl that flieth in the air,

Deu 4:18 The likeness of any thing that creepeth on the ground, the likeness of any fish that is in the waters beneath the earth:

Deu 4:19 And lest thou lift up thine eyes unto heaven, and when thou seest the sun, and the moon, and the stars, even all the host of heaven, shouldest be driven to worship them, and serve them, which the LORD thy God hath divided unto all nations under the whole heaven.

Jdg 8:21 Then Zeḇaḥ and Tsalmunna said, “Rise yourself, and fall on us. For as a man is, so is his might.” So Giḏʽon arose and slew Zeḇaḥ and Tsalmunna, and took the crescent ornaments which were on their camels’ necks.

Isa 3:18 In that day יהוה takes away the finery of the anklets, and the headbands, and the crescents,

wikipedia.org

Artemis later became identified with Selene, a Titaness who was a Greek moon goddess, sometimes depicted with a crescent moon above her head. She was also identified with the Roman goddess Diana, with the Etruscan goddess Artume, and with the Greek or Carian goddess Hecate.

“Goddess of the forests and the Moon,

Diana of the Silver Crescent,

I chant my praises to you.

I lift my arms to your heavenly Crescent.

My thanks to you for caring for the woodland creatures,

For protecting the forests and meadow lands.

Protect me and mine, for we are your spiritual children.

Lovely Diana, I sing your praises.

from “Moon Magick” by D. J. Conway

This is the picture of worshiping to Sin was carved on the walls in Ziggurat Temple. See the picture of Crescent moon was carved on the wall.

Isis

Isis was often represented standing on the crescent moon, with twelve stars surrounding her head. In almost every Roman Catholic church on the continent of Europe may be seen pictures

and statues of Mary, the “Queen of Heaven,” standing on the crescent moon, her head surrounded with twelve stars.”

-From Bethlehem to Calvary – Chapter Two Alice Bailey

“Goddess veneration of the “virgin with child”

has been a central belief for various societies

throughout history, including some aspects of

Christianity. Indeed, many leading occultists

see striking parallels between the Roman Catholic

“Virgin Mary”–the “Queen of Heaven”–and the

goddess Isis. And the comparison is startling.

Presently, Roman Catholicism holds Mary

to be eternally virgin, just as Isis was.

Catholicism also contends that Mary was

without sin, making her into a type of “god.”

In fact, there are some who claim that Mary

is the “fourth person” within the Trinity.

This belief is linked to Catholicism’s

claim that Mary now has a direct say in

mankind’s salvation through her role of

co-redemption and mediation. Hence, the

elevated Mary becomes a “goddess” in the

Catholic faith, just as Isis was a goddess

in the pantheon of Egyptian deities. And just

as Isis was (and still is) called “Mother of

the World” and “Queen of Heaven,” so too

Mary is now exalted with these same titles.”

-Isis: “Queen of Heaven”

by Carl Teichrib

Ishtar with crescent

A symbol of the Sun, a star or rosette surrounded by buffalo horns or a crescent is a common variation of this motif. In Sumer, the eight-pointed star in the crescent could stand for Inanna-Ishtar, associated with the planet Venus, and also possibly at the same time her twin brother, Utu the Sun God. Both Inanna and Utu were children of Nanna-Suen, whose symbol again is the crescent Moon.

Golden calf worship

Mary – Mother goddess

The crescent moon is also a symbol associated with the Hindu’s iconography: with the deity Shiva, who wears it at the top of his matted hair.

Allah

http://www.biblebelievers.org.au/moongod.htm

Evidence gathered from both North and South Arabia demonstrate that Moon-god worship was clearly active even in Muhammad’s day and was still the dominant cult. According to numerous inscriptions, while the name of the Moon-god was Sin, his title was al- ilah, i.e. “the deity,” meaning that he was the chief or high god among the gods. As Coon pointed out, “The god Il or Ilah was originally a phase of the Moon God.” The Moon-god was called al- ilah, i.e. the god, which was shortened to Allah in pre-Islamic times. The pagan Arabs even used Allah in the names they gave to their children. For example, both Muhammad’s father and uncle had Allah as part of their names.

The fact that they were given such names by their pagan parents proves that Allah was the title for the Moon-god even in Muhammad’s day. Prof. Coon goes on to say, “Similarly, under Mohammed’s tutelage, the relatively anonymous Ilah, became Al-Ilah, The God, or Allah, the Supreme Being.”

Al-Kindi, one of the early Christian apologists against Islam, pointed out that Islam and its god Allah did not come from the Bible but from the paganism of the Sabeans. They did not worship the God of the Bible but the Moon-god and his daughters al-Uzza, al-Lat and Manat. Dr. Newman concludes his study of the early Christian-Muslim debates by stating, “Islam proved itself to be…a separate and antagonistic religion which had sprung up from idolatry.” Islamic scholar Caesar Farah concluded “There is no reason, therefore, to accept the idea that Allah passed to the Muslims from the Christians and Jews.” The Arabs worshipped the Moon-god as a supreme deity. But this was not biblical monotheism. While the Moon-god was greater than all other gods and goddesses, this was still a polytheistic pantheon of deities. Now that we have the actual idols of the Moon-god, it is no longer possible to avoid the fact that Allah was a pagan god in pre-Islamic times. Is it any wonder then that the symbol of Islam is the crescent moon? That a crescent moon sits on top of their mosques and minarets? That a crescent moon is found on the flags of Islamic nations? That the Muslims fast during the month which begins and ends with the appearance of the crescent moon in the sky?

http://amos37.com/2009/11/13/hilal-means-crescent/

The crescent and star, while generally regarded as Islamic symbols today, have long been used in Asia Minor and by the ancient Turks, earlier than the advent of Islam. According to archaeological excavations, Gِktürks used the crescent and star figure on their coins. The 1500-year-old coin includes three crescent moon figures and a star near a person. The crescent is one of the oldest symbols known to humanity. Together with the sun, it appeared on Akkadian seals as early as 2300 BC and from at least the second millennium BC it was the symbol of the Mesopotamian Moon gods Nanna in Sumer and Sin in Babylonia, Sin being the “Lamp of Heaven and Earth”.

For ages the crescent was the emblem of the Chaldean Astarte, the Egyptian Isis, and the Greek Diana, all of them Queens of Heaven, and finally became the emblem of Mary the Virgin. “The Greek Christian Empire of Constantinople held it as their palladium. Upon the conquest by the Turks, the Sultan adopted it.

“Sîn, moon god of Semitic origin, worshiped in ancient Middle Eastern religions. One of the principal deities in the Babylonian and Assyrian pantheons, he was lord of the calendar and of wisdom. The chief centers of his worship were at Harran and at Ur, where he was known as Nanna.” (encyclopedia.com, Sîn). Haran is also known as the city of the moon god. This is the place where Abraham was called out of. We are called out of darkness and into His marvelous light. The bible is our source of light.

He is commonly designated as En-zu, or “lord of wisdom.” During the period (c.2600-2400 BC) that Ur exercised a large measure of supremacy over the Euphrates valley, Sin was naturally regarded as the head of the pantheon. It is to this period that we must trace such designations of Sin as “father of the gods”, “chief of the gods”, “creator of all things”, and the like. The “wisdom” personified by the moon-god is likewise an expression of the science of astrology, in which the observation of the moon’s phases is an important factor.

His wife was Ningal (“Great Lady”), who bore him Utu/Shamash (“Sun”) and Inanna/Ishtar (the planet Venus). The tendency to centralize the powers of the universe leads to the establishment of the doctrine of a triad consisting of Sin/Nanna and his children.

Sin had a beard made of lapis lazuli and rode on a winged bull. The bull was one of his symbols, through his father, Enlil, “Bull of Heaven”, along with the crescent and the tripod (which may be a lamp-stand). On cylinder seals, he is represented as an old man with a flowing beard and the crescent symbol. In the astral-theological system he is represented by the number 30 and the moon. This number probably refers to the average number of days (correctly around 29.53) in a lunar month, as measured between successive new moons.

Egyptians

They are subdivided, like the rest, into seven classes or Hierarchies, In Egypt although the moon received less worship than in Chaldea or India, still Isis stands as the representative of Luna-Lunus, “the celestial Hermaphrodite”. Strange enough while the modern connect the moon only with lunacy and generation, the ancient nations, who knew better, have, individually and collectively, connected their “wisdom gods” with it. Thus in Egypt the lunar gods are Thoth, Hermes and Chons; in India it is Budha, the Son of Soma, the moon; in Chaldea Nebo is the lunar god of Secret Wisdom, etc., etc.

The Greeks used it to represent the goddess Artemis or Diana of the Romans. Typically depicted as Goddess of the hunt with a bow and crescent moon. These are mentioned in the New Testament which we see in Acts 19 where it is recorded… “And when the townclerk had appeased the people, he said, [Ye] men of Ephesus, what man is there that knoweth not how that the city of the Ephesians is a worshipper of the great goddess Diana, and of the [image] which fell down from Jupiter?”

This image that fell down in Ephesus from Jupiter is reported to be given to Abraham when he was reconstructing the Kaaba. Ishmael reportedly was given the original transparent hyacinth stone, but became black by reason of sinners kissing. Which is performed as idol worship every year during pilgrimage at Mecca. It was according to tradition given to be the corner stone of the rebuilt Kaaba to attest to Gabriels diety.Source:Nature – Google Books It is the one and same idol of the black rock of the Kaaba which is a meteorite. The ancients worshipped these meteoric stones that where super heated and smooth attributing heaven as it’s source. Of note also is the Greek goddess took a meteorite (stone that fell from heaven) to Tyre according to Eusebius to worship it there in a shrine.

 

There will probably always be disagreements over the calendar which will arise amongst believers who wish to “keep” the feasts of the Lord.   As a result, believers will be divided according to their convictions on when to celebrate the Biblical festivals and fingers will be pointed with the claim that the other side is causing disunity.  This is a sad fact which undermines the actual purpose of the feasts.  The feasts (מודים ‘moedim’) were designed by the Lord to be “wedding rehearsals” for the bride to prepare her to meet her bridegroom.  The shadow pictures which the feasts bring forth are to lead believers to the Messiah who came to gather us together in one (Colossians 2:17).  The last “speech” Yahshua/Jesus gave focused on this desire of unity amongst His body (John 17:11, 20-23).

Unity comes only through Messiah, the New Covenant in Him (Psalm 50:5; Isaiah 49:3-9; Hebrews 13:20-21; Jeremiah 50:5; Ephesians 2:15; Colossians 1:20; 2:1-11) and walking with Him (1John 1:3-7).

“Unity in the body of Christ does not rest on uniformity, but on our common ‘blood,’ which is the blood of Christ.  We are now members of one family, and that identity cannot be taken from us, no matter how much we disagree or quarrel.” (The Gospel in Human Contexts – Paul Hiebert pg 193)

So while we may have disagreements about doctrine such as the calendar, this ought not to be a source of division amongst His people (Philippians 2:3; James 3:16).  When you start the year or month or week or are under the conviction that the calendar isn’t applicable today, we can all be in agreement that we are still in unity through Him, not our agreements on doctrine.  Let each person be convinced in his or her own mind and follow the Lord wholeheartedly in that conviction (Romans 14:5-6).  We all have to work out our own salvation with fear and trembling so we ought not to point the finger of condemnation at others as each one of us falls or stands according to the Lord, not man (Romans 14:4).

The purpose of the calendar and the feasts is to prepare the bride of Messiah to meet her bridegroom.  Each year these feasts should help us to grow in His grace and knowledge (2 Peter 3:18), not raise up walls of division (Ephesians 2:14) amongst His people and fingers of condemnation (Isaiah 58:4, 9-14).  If we disagree on the calendar, let our discussions be to the use of edifying, not tearing each other down and apart (Ephesians 4:2-16).

The main goal of unity is the preparation unto perfection of the bride to meet the Bridegroom (Matthew 5:48; Romans 12:2; 1 Corinthians 13:9-13; Ephesians 4:11-13; Philippians 3:14-15; Colossians 1:28; 3:14; 4:12; Romans 10:4; Psalm 119:1).  This is done through love (Colossians 3:14; 1 Corinthians 13:9-13; Romans 13:10; 1 John 4:10, 12, 16; 5:3).  Love is patient and kind (1 Corinthians 13:4), not puffed up (1 Corinthians 8:1) with knowledge.  A believer walking in love understands that we all see through a glass darkly and as a result our foundation is His love, not our knowledge of doctrine (1 Corinthians 13:9-13; 8:2).

True unity will come when Messiah returns and regathers us (Isaiah 52:8; Jeremiah 3:17-18; 31:8-13; 50:3-7; Micah 2:12)  where we will be resurrected into His Image (1 Corinthians 15:49; 2 Corinthians 3:18; Psalm 17:15; Romans 8:28-30; Galatians 3:26-29; Hebrews 13:21).  This is when believers will see ‘eye to eye’ (Isaiah 52:8) and follow the perfect Biblical calendar according to His teaching and not man’s interpretations (Isaiah 2:2-5).

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